Peeter Süda - A way to the ‘heart’ of Estonia through Germany
A way to the ‘heart’ of Estonia through Germany
The history of this research began several years ago, when I visited Tallinn for the first time. There was an International organ festival, and I was a participant of masterclasses. At one concert I heard music by the Estonian composer Peeter Süda. Within a couple of days I bought scores of his organ pieces. Two years later I was invited to play a concert in Tallinn, and I decided to play his pieces “Ave Maria” and Prelude and fugue. After a concert one Estonian organist told me: “Thank you very much, here almost nobody plays the Prelude and fugue! It was nice to hear it”. After some silence he continued: “But, you know, we have our own tradition of performance for these pieces”.
In September of 2013 I became a Master degree student
and decided to dedicate my research work in Codarts to Peeter Süda and his organ music, trying to answer the question: “How can I perform organ pieces by P. Süda, using his ideas and examples of different performance traditions?” I could just play this music without any research, but I liked it so much that I wanted to find out more about this composer and his pieces, I had a lot of questions, I was not sure about what I was doing, but I wanted to perform his music. At the beginning of my research I wished to make a recording of all the completed pieces by P.S., but things which seemed so easy to do became more complicated and interesting, and the research grew and brought me not only new things about this composer and his music, but also about German styles of performing, and other new knowledges and skills.
Translation of Middle Eastern & Balkan rhythms and meters in my set up, consisting of darbuka, cajon, bendir attached to full drum-set
This paper focuses on the structure of a practical method that facilitates the transition from traditional elements towards the modern expression of performing on percussion. The primal aim behind this idea is to enrich the performer’s experience by, not only exercising on odd meters and rhythms seen in traditional music of the Middle East and the Balkans, but also using a variety of instruments on the same time for getting the required acoustic outcome. On the other hand the main instrument on which the full combination of the percussion-set was based, the drum-set, is giving the perfect match on a try-out to combine different music practices of the East and the West. Conducting a study like that sets the start for experimentation on combinations of music styles and their representative instruments.
The scope and significance of this research is described in the first section, highlighting the importance of the research question under examination in its final phase. In addition possible ways and primal findings that helped on finalizing the build up of a distinct set-up are commented. Technical matters leading to the desired musical outcome are outlined in the second section, along with the important aspects discovered during the implementation of the study. Results, findings and limitations of the study are described below. The next section, which forms the bulk of the paper, turns to the
description of the data under examination, structured into the 3 intervention cycles of research.
Sections 4, 5 and 6 all discuss in more detail the technical, notative procedure used and how it was transformed, during the research period, in order to strengthen the significance and application of the approach under examination; basically how to transfer Middle Eastern and Balkan rhythms and meters on a set up that consists of M. Eastern percussion and the drum set. The paper ends with a brief conclusion and the more detailed description of the resulted methodology.
The French cello bowing style from around 1900
The Artistic Research has been full of surprises, opportunities and it even created a world full of new ideas for me which I did not think was possible in the beginning of the research.
When I started to do the research, my first thought was to focus on relaxation in performance but since I already been very interested about French cello playing for a few years I decided to change the path because I found my topic less treated and full of potentials. Thereafter I started in the Performance Practice domain where Job ter Haar became my coach and to have a cellist as a coach when you are a cellist yourself has been very inspiring, helpful and motivating for me.
From a few years ago I have always wanted to have a broader insight in the bowing style and a deeper understanding about it, because I knew that it could led to self-improvement in my own playing and also be useful for other cellists. As I have been fascinated of cellists such as Paul Tortelier, André Navarra and Maurice Gendron for their way of playing the French repertoire and their use of the bowing technique, I was curious to find out more about their heritage in French playing and how they applied this in their musical language. The knowledge about this area has never been close to me, which I will explain later in my motivation.
After a few domain meetings my head was full of new ideas for the Artistic Research. The journey took off with the French bowing style from around 1900 on the cello, where I got the opportunity to research in several elements of the bowing style and how I could apply them to the French repertoire and close related repertoire from that period.
Since then, I have felt that my choice of the subject has been right and has kept me interested to progress in this unknown area for me throughout my Artistic Research.
NARRATIVE APPROACH IN GROOVE-RELATED MUSIC
Carmelo Emanuele Patti
During the Baroque, Classical, and Romantic eras, western composers have used various traditional forms to structure their works. For example, each dance of a Baroque suite had its own rhythmic character and tempo. The sonata form affected composers until the twentieth century, adapting the traditional form to a new musical language. In Jazz music, the tendency to write music following forms borrowed from the past is really popular. The structure, that we can find in a lot of Big Band pieces, formed by an intro, exposition, development and recapitulation with the “shout chorus” (in which the whole ensemble plays the theme or a special) has classical reminiscences (e.g. certain aspects ABA-form). Moreover, if we consider the main Jazz repertoire (e.g. Standards from Real Books) we can also say that almost all the compositions are based on pre-defined forms (e.g. blues, 16/32 bar form, rhythm change form, etc.).
Except “free Jazz” in which the player, starting from a concept has the freedom to develop his musical thinking only through improvisation, in Jazz there is still the tendency to write music starting from rules, such as pre-defined chord progressions or fixed forms. As a composer I found it interesting to find a way to open the traditional use of form in Jazz, and I decided to investigate on how it is possible to relate the aspects of musical narration to the aspects of form. The question that led me to find answers and start this journey was:
How can I relate the aspects of form in my groove-related music by analyzing the aspects of musical narration?
This allowed me to open the traditional way of writing groove-related music, rethinking the use of the constructive approach in writing in “groove”. The use of narrative approach was also a pretext to reflect on the representation of meanings into music, and I included in
my research some reflections about the role of musical perception.
The concept behind the musical narration defines the form, and the narrative approach opened me to a variety of possibilities to develop musical material in my composition. The constructive approach used to build up the groove (at a Micro level) can be implemented with the narrative approach (at a Macro level).
FRIEDRICH GRÜTZMACHER Editions and transcriptions for cello
Ivan Nogueira Martinez
The cello - as the violin or the string instruments in general - has a long and important tradition from hundreds of years. We know about many masters of the cello who could really master the instrument and contribute with something significant for its development in technique and style of playing. I could mention many names: Boccherini, Duport, Kummer, Popper, Tortelier… All these cellist lived in different moments of the history, and they did important contributions to the cello. Those contributions made the cello be like it is today, the way we play it and the way we practice it in classical music. Are we aware of that?
In order to be a good player, we need to spend a lot of time working on the technique. It needs to be so good that we can master our instrument for playing the great repertoire of the instrument. Nowadays, one of the most spread ways of practicing the technique is by playing studies. Every instrument has its studies, which every professional classical musician must have played in order to become a good player.
I always enjoyed playing studies on the cello. During my growing period as a cellist, I played many of the most important works of this kind: starting with S.Lee or Dotzauer, continuing with Duport, Franchomme, Popper, Grützmacher… Every method has been written in a different time, for a different purpose, and to develop different technical skills.
Some years ago, my curiosity about this topic became more intense. It happened in a period where I came back into the practising of the Duport studies after many years of having done so. I realized that the edition I was using was made by the cellist Pierre Fournier (French cellist, 1906-1986). I wondered how the original version of Duport would be like, and where my edition came from. What I found out was something that changed my vision of the work and woke up my curiosity on the field of editions. All the modern versions of this Duport work are based in the edition made by F. Grützmacher. His edition is very different to the original. It reflects the way of playing and the aesthetics of other different period of time and it also reflects the strong personality of this cellist. Those modern versions are closer to the Grützmacher version than to the original, what made me think that this edition may have been so important and popular at its time that it became the standard version of the work. At that moment I started to be interested about Grützmacher. Who was him? How much did he influenced the modern cello style of playing? What can I learn from him?
The sound of a character
Art branches have nourished and affected each other for centuries. They formed common disciplines
and evolved into new formats. Interdisciplinary relationships have offered the artist enrichment of
Music Theater is a concept that brings together music and theater disciplines, and during it’s history it
evolved into different forms. Composers’ goal to merge their compositions with performing arts
formed a basis for forms like Opera, Singspiel, Operetta and Musical. Argentinian composer Mauricio
Kagel introduced the term “New Music theatre” for new forms of music theatre that are different than
the before mentioned traditional forms.
These musical genres, involve stories, various characters, and dramatic situations. For a composer who
incorporates visual art, the score is most of the time related to the story and its characters.
The composer who is also the stage director builds a bridge between two art forms and creates a world
of sound in which she connects music and theater. The particular sound world of a visual aspect has
changed through the centuries within art movements, and each composer presented to the audience
their own adaptation of a story and the sound of their characters in different forms.
This study explores a composer who incorporates visual art’ formed of music, and how this
incorporation is staged.
Unifying two strong art disciplines like theatre and music, the strength of this combination, and the
idea that each theater character carries out a different color and sound increased my desire to improve
myself in this field. I was introduced to this world which combines theatrical and musical elements
during my Master studies, and It was my ambition to write the story of my pieces, develop the
characters as well as the music.
THE AFRO-CUBAN DRUM RHYTHMS: Origin, Selection, Analysis and Development of drum patterns applied to Jazz Trombone
My intention with this Artistic Research was to learn more about the afro-Cuban rhythms that I consider one of the bases on which a lot of modern music is built.
As a trombonist, I don´t consider myself only as a jazzman, sincerely I would like to be the most complete musician that I can. Of course, to study jazz gave me many tools for being more comfortable in other styles, but rhythmically, the Latin-American music has still a lot to say.
The compilation of the information for the development of this research report, has allowed me to discover an exciting world to which I am truly attracted.
Since I was a child I have been fascinated and captivated by the percussion.
Music is magic, but if there is something more magical than the music itself , that is the sound of the drum. Since ancient times the drum has been a sacred element in many cultures. The present Western society, with its great technological development, is forgetting the basics of human spirituality.
I sincerely believe that the drum will have an important role in the future, as a healing member of society. Every musician should be percussionist before playing his own instrument.
De ontwikkeling van de muzikale taal van Arnold Schönberg tussen 1899 en 1908
Patrick van der Linden
Met dit onderzoeksverslag sluit ik mijn studie Theorie der Muziek aan het conservatorium af. Deze Masterstudie vormde een uitbreiding en intensivering van mijn bachelorscriptie. Dit schrijven handelde over tonaliteit in de koorwerken Friede auf Erden (opus 13, Arnold Schönberg) en Entflieht auf leichten Kähnen (opus 2, Webern).
Mijn uitgangspunt was dat ik me zowel in de theorie rondom Schönberg als de muziek van Schönberg wilde verdiepen. Ik wilde onderzoeken of analyse van zijn werk ons kan helpen zijn muziek beter te begrijpen en te waarderen. De keuze voor het onderwerp is ingegeven door nieuwsgierigheid naar Schönberg en zijn werk enerzijds: aan den lijve wilde ik ondervinden hoe zijn composities vanuit een Brahms/Wagner-traditie in amper tien jaar tijd zijn geëvolueerd naar een strikt persoonlijke stijl, in de literatuur meestal met vrije atonaliteit aangeduid. Anderzijds is de keuze gegroeid vanuit mijn werkveld als dirigent: binnen dit veld heb ik veel te maken met concertprogramma’s van koorwerken na Brahms (1833-1897) en Wagner (1813-1883). De Duits georiënteerde koormuziek van de tweede helft van de negentiende eeuw tot en met de Eerste Wereldoorlog raakt me als musicus en als mens. Het is dan ook uitermate bevredigend om te proberen te achterhalen hoe een componist als Schönberg te werk is gegaan, op welke wijze hij bij de traditie aansluit en hoe hij vanuit deze traditie zijn eigen lijn trekt. Het verwerven van kennis en inzicht en de praktische toepassing daarvan in mijn werk als docent en dirigent gaan gelijk op.
De centrale onderzoeksvraag is: hoe ontwikkelt zich de muzikale taal bij Schönberg in het eerste decennium van de twintigste eeuw? Hierbij is de studie gewijd aan een specifiek, wat minder belicht genre uit Schönbergs rijke scheppingsperiode: de klavierliederen uit 1899-1909. De keuze voor juist zijn vocale repertoire zal verder worden toegelicht in hoofdstuk 3.
In het verslag wordt vanuit de probleemstelling antwoord gegeven op onderliggende vragen, zoals:
- Wat is tonaliteit? Wat is functionele tonaliteit?
- Wat is atonaliteit? Voor Schönberg was dit een negatieve term. Is dat terecht? Bestaat atonaliteit?
- Ondermijnt Schönberg de tonaliteit? Met andere woorden: verdwijnt deze? ? Of verrijkt Schönberg de tonaliteit?
Adapting the marimba into Astor Piazzolla's music
It is common in the percussion world to play the music by Astor Piazzolla without being proficient in the Tango style. A lot of percussionists, including me, simply play the piano or guitar parts on the marimba without making any adjustments to the arrangement, because it sounds good to us and it is technically possible. By copying directly, we think we know about the style, but we are wrong. This issue can also be found in the marimba arrangements of Bach’s Cello Suites. In my opinion, one should research about styles of the compositions if they were not originally written for percussion. Otherwise one will never be as close as possible to the intended style, which is essential for a good performance.
Since Tango is about arranging, my goal is to find a suitable role for the marimba in the music of Astor Piazzolla that is as closely aligned to the stylistic traits of Tango as possible.
Fusing Irish folk music and Argentinian tango on bandoneon and harp
The deep motivation behind my research is that I want to be an earning, versatile, professional musician. Through my Masters I want to make myself the best musician I can be. Playing the instrument bandoneon, I specialise in a narrow field of music, namely the Argentine tango. In life as a musician however, a lot of opportunities will turn up that are outside my field of expertise. I wanted to find a way to enable myself to take on all of these opportunities. The way to do this, was to find a process to be able to be creative on demand. Such a process would enable me to take on opportunities in unknown musical territory, allowing me to develop further in my versatility as a musician.
The most significant goal for me was that I wanted to make for myself a process to be creative on demand - a step by step process to be creative when I need to be creative, regardless of what state of mind I might find myself in. To be creative beyond those special times when “the muses come” or when “inspiration hits.” Having the tools to be creative without feeling inspired also takes away the pressure of being inspired, letting the sought-after state of mind flow more naturally and more productively. So, the personal challenge I set was how could I make such a process for myself?
The first step was to find a way to get past creatives’ worst nightmare - the - the big blank page. In order to do this, I set myself some very narrow limits within which I had to work, in order get the initial spark of creativity started. So, I put myself in a small, difficult box. A box of clear limitations, from which I would have to use my skills, talent, and musicianship to get out of by making my own strong artistic decisions. The box I made, was the task of creating an original piece of music for harp and bandoneon, fusing Argentinian tango - which I knew a lot about, and Irish jig - which I knew little about.
I chose those specific limitations for several reasons. The first is that I have a duo with my sister Julie Rokseth, which is intended to represent a big part of my livelihood as a musician. I was interested to create a fusion of Celtic music and tango because in the duo we have been composing our own music with undetermined or unspecified influences, but that has had both tango and Celtic musical elements in them. I was interested to turn the vague inspiration of Celtic music into a clear inspiration for my music, and would do it through composing a fusion of tango and jig by making informed artistic decisions. Secondly, I reduced the large concept of Irish/Celtic music down to a very specific and limiting type of tune, the jig. This was once again to ensure that I would have very specific parameters for my box. Thirdly, I wanted to expand how I can use the bandoneon to adapt to challenges of new styles and be able to switch between them effortlessly.
Artistic Research Question
“How can I create and perform a piece for harp and bandoneon fusing the styles of Argentinian tango and Celtic/Irish jigs?”
The Harp: No Tango Tourist | Creating an Authentic Tango Harp Voice
My Boldest Artistic Decision was to break convention and play the classical harp down the Tango line at Codarts. It was the nurturing at Codarts that let me to focus my Artistic Research on injecting the harp into Tango and discovering whether, and how the harp could sing with an authentic tango voice while also being able to give some of its own uniqueness upon the tradition. To make sure that the harp can become a real and organic tango instrument rather than being a “tango tourist”– a borrowed classical instrument that sometimes sits like a lovely guest but doesn’t actually belong.
This Artistic Research project has allowed me to show that the harp can sing with a voice that DOES belong in tango. The Harp: no tango tourist.
Expanding the role of the jazz guitar
The guitar and the piano perform similar roles and occupy overlapping frequency ranges in jazz and popular music.
However, the piano can produce two or more simultaneous voices at the extremes of its range using standard technique. The guitar cannot produce two or more simultaneous voices at the extremes of its range using standard plucking or finger-picking techniques.
Thus the two-hand touch technique was developed partially to emulate the right and left hand of a pianist. The tuning of the guitar was altered to provide an extended low range in order to facilitate bass voices more effectively.
The result is an overall method for playing the guitar which provides the ability to effectively perform counterpoint, melody, chord and/or bass accompaniment with an extended range of the guitar that is fully utilisable.