1 See Maurizio Viano, A Certain Realism: Making Use of Pasolini’s Film Theory and Practice (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1993).
2 Barnett Newman, Painters Painting, directed by Emile De Antonio (1973).
3 Pier Paolo Pasolini, ‘The Written Language of Reality’, in Heretical Empiricism, ed. by Louise K. Barnett, trans. Ben Lawton and Louise K. Barnett (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1988), pp. 197–222 (p. 198).
4 See Ferdinand de Saussure, Course in General Linguistics, ed. by Charles Bally and Albert Sechehaye, trans. by Wade Baskin (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1972).
5 See Christian Metz, Film Language: A Semiotics of the Cinema (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1974).
6 See Pasolini, ‘The Written Language of Reality’, in Heretical Empiricism, 197–222.
7 See Umberto Eco, A Theory of Semiotics (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1976).
8 Pee Pier Paolo Pasolini, ‘The Cinema of Poetry’, in Heretical Empiricism, 167–86.
10 Ibid., 175–76.
11 Gilles Deleuze, Cinema 1: The Movement-Image, trans. by Hugh Tomlinson and Barbara Habberjam (Minneapolis: Minnesota University Press, 1986), p. 73; Gilles Deleuze, Cinema 2: The Time-Image, trans. by Hugh Tomlinson and Robert Galeta, (Minneapolis: Minnesota University Press, 1989), p. 148.
12 Teresa de Lauretis, Alice Doesn’t: Feminism, Semiotics, Cinema (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1984).
13 B. F. Skinner was an early ethologist promoting ‘behaviourism’ whose ‘Skinner box’ influenced W. V. O. Quine’s philosophy of language. For a discussion of this intellectual history, see Donald R. Griffin, ‘Progress Toward a Cognitive Ethology’, in Cognitive Ethology: The Minds of Other Animals; Essays in Honor of Donald R. Griffin, ed. by Carolyn A. Ristau (Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum, 1991), pp. 3–17.
14 See David Premack and Guy Woodruff, ‘Does the Chimpanzee have a Theory of Mind?’ Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 1.4 (1978), 515–26.
15 See David Premack, Gavagai! Or the Future History of the Animal Language Controversy (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1986).
16 Eco, A Theory of Semiotics.
17 Irene Pepperberg, The Alex Studies: Cognitive and Communicative Abilities of Grey Parrots (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1999).
18 See Donald R. Griffin, Animal Minds: Beyond Cognition to Consciousness (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2001).
19 See Robert M. Seyfarth and Dorothy Cheney, ‘Meaning, Reference, and Intentionality in the Natural Vocalizations of Monkeys’, in Language and Communication: Comparative Perspectives, ed. by Herbert L. Roitblat, Louis M. Herman, and Paul E. Nachtigall (Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum, 1993), pp. 195–215.
20 Marcel Gyger, Stephen J. Karakashian, and Peter Marler, ‘Avian Alarm Calling: Is there an Audience Effect?’, Animal Behavior, 34.5 (1986), 1570–72.