Name: Margaret Urquhart Main Subject: Master of Music Research Coach: Peter Holman Title of Research: The Early Violone Research Question: What were the earliest violones, how can they be defined and how were they used till 1700? Summary of Results: After looking at evidence of the emergence of the first low bowed string instruments in Europe, this paper follows the types and use of the main instruments which could be termed violones till 1700, mainly centered in Italy. Through the study of treatises referring to the violone, scores using the term, iconography, secondary sources and the reconstruction of a copy of a violone from 1590, it follows the development of the violone till it becomes an octave-doubling instrument. The presentation of the extended paper will include a closer look at the issues surrounding the history of, and the term, violone, and live performance of music demonstrating the early violone, together with two viola da gambas in a consort. Biography: Margaret Urquhart studied double bass and violone with Anthony Woodrow and viola da gamba with Anneke Pols at the Royal Conservatory in The Hague. She subsequently joined many notable Baroque ensembles. In 1986, she became a member of Frans Bruggen’s Orchestra of the Eighteenth Century of which she is the first bassist. In addition to a busy performing schedule, she teaches at Amsterdam and The Hague conservatories, gives master classes internationally and coaches at the European Baroque Orchestra courses. She performs on the Viennese bass, the 8’ violone in various tunings and the 16’ violone and double bass.
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