Over more than a hundred years, since its beginnings in America, jazz music has evolved into a global phenomenon. In Austria, among other European places, jazz has developed into a vibrant musical art form amidst its site-specific social, cultural and political conditions. While few Austrian musicians and ensembles, such as pianist Joe Zawinul, saxophonist Hans Koller, guitarist Wolfgang Muthspiel, the Vienna Art Orchestra and, more recently, the Jazz Big Band Graz have achieved international recognition, the local jazz scene has become an integral part of Austria's traditionally rich musical life.1 The academic institute for jazz at the University of Music in Graz has played a major role in the internationalization and professionalization of Austria's jazz musicians and in the development of an educated local jazz audience.2 Since the inception of the institute as one of Europe's first academic jazz institutions in 1965, various community outreach programs were initiated in this regard. However, these activities served pedagogical purposes rather than collaborative artistic endeavors in rural communities.
In order to fill this gap and to engage musicians of such a rural community in a meaningful artistic activity, the arts-based research project Upper Styrian Big Band Folk3 (USBBF) was designed as part of the larger arts-based research initiative Jazz & the City: Identity of a Capital of Jazz,4 which was funded by the Austrian Science Fund (FWF) and conducted at the institutes of jazz and jazz research at the University of Music in Graz. The artistic experiment USBBF was collectively negotiated among the members of the jazz scene of a small, rural community in the Austrian Alps, who will be referred to as the project participants throughout this text. After a preliminary discussion process the project participants mutually agreed on the definition of its main goal: USBBF aims for a collaboratively derived musical expression in the form of a series of contemporary jazz compositions, which are authentic and meaningful towards the community's identity and rich cultural traditions. In other words, a new concert program for a combination of both, the community's large jazz orchestra 'High Styria Big Band' and the traditional folk group 'Die Pfeilstöcker' should be created with the potential to express the community's identity and its musical traditions authentically and at the highest possible artistic level with the main artistic decisions to be based on extensive collaborative discussions. This aim entailed some complexity and raised several questions, not only for me as the project's main researcher and commissioned composer of the music, but also for the other members of the community. What do the notions of identity and authenticity mean to this particular social group? How can I translate these meanings within the compositions and which specific compositional decisions regarding musical style, format and technical scope should be made in this regard? Moreover, which meanings may be conveyed in the context of this community-based project?
USBBF has addressed these questions through a series of activities, which started with a collective discussion process among the community's members on various aspects of identity and authenticity. Then I translated the issues raised in these discussions according to my own perception by creating twelve compositions for the local 'High Styria Big Band' and the folk group 'Die Pfeilstöcker'. Technically, this work involved a development of the traditional melodic, harmonic and rhythmic material and a translation of the emotions conveyed either through the lyrics or the melodic and harmonic content of the folk tunes. The subsequent collective realization of the work through concerts and production of a professional CD incited another round of discussions, which also fed into this study.
Exposition structure and research methodology
This exposition presents the art-based research of USBBF in three parts which cover the following main aspects:
1. Discussion of context, identity and authenticity
2. Analyses of musical compositions
3. Summary and concluding remarks
Part I involves the project participants’ collective exploration of the notions of identity and authenticity. This is based on their own perceptions regarding these notions as articulated in various group discussions rather than on a rigorous theoretical discussion of these terms. Hence the content of this text is to be understood as written from within the community, which involves my analytical insider information, and not solely from the outside perspective of an academically informed analyst. The text is not about developing theoretical concepts of philosophy or the social sciences in a community project in jazz and surely not about discussing the seminal conceptions of the notions of identity and authenticity found in the scholarly literature. Since most project participants do not possess the academic background or did not choose to mediate a scholarly discussion, their conversations – which inform the reflections throughout this exposition – took place in an informal and spontaneous manner. As a result, certain contradictions, inconsistencies and possibilities for alternative definitions and conclusions may appear to the reader who expects a conventional academic approach. Imposing scholarly rigidity onto this project would have meant to exclude the majority of the group members from participating in the process of exploring the contextual background and artistic possibilities. Having said this, certain theoretical academic concepts have proved to be helpful in clarifying the terminology for the discussion of contextual issues in the artistic process: In my multiple roles as a genuine member of the community, composer and academic researcher, I had the opportunity to instigate specific definitions by means of circulated email letters and formal project descriptions for funding applications. I introduced some definitions which, in my perception, contributed to the clarification of thoughts raised by the community. Additionally, the writing process of this exposition allowed the formulation of analytical remarks which are embedded in a scholarly context throughout this text.
In summary, the exploration of the project participants’ identity and musical authenticity evolved from the very structure of the community and its cultural background; an informal discussion around what the terms identity and authenticity meant for us as a group; and a process towards formalizing these ideas in musical terms, which included questions of method and conceptual matters regarding this work of arts-based research.
All of the issues raised fed into the compositions, presented and analyzed in Part II (middle column). This section represents my musical interpretation of the contextual background as presented in the previous part. It offers information regarding the distinct artistic approach to the compositional process by analyzing the recordings of two representative pieces. These two pieces involve most of the artistic concepts, albeit in different forms, utilized for the ten other compositions. The analyses present both, a macro and micro level investigation of the music. On a macro level, a video/audio presentation of both compositions allows the reader to follow the full score according to the music that is played simultaneously. This setting aims to create a holistic experience for the reader with a musical background by conveying general artistic decisions regarding form, arrangement and orchestration as illustrated in the score and realized in the audio recording. The video/audio presentations are located at the beginning, respectively the end of the text body in the left column. On a micro level, Part II also contains detailed information regarding the specific musical decisions by offering a close hermeneutic reading of the music according to the contextual background and aesthetic matters discussed in Part I. The analysis reveals the various musical choices made in order to translate the collectively theorized aspects of identity and authenticity in a meaningful way.5 Finally, Part III (in the right column) comprises a brief summary and a concluding analysis of meaningful aspects conveyed through the project.
The discussion of identity for this project has imposed some difficulties on the project participants due to the wide array of perspectives and definitions. The popular usage of the term as well as approaches in the scholarly discourse indicate references to concepts such as the self, society, nation, gender and other group memberships. The editors of the recently published comprehensive Handbook of Identity Theory and Research confirm that 'identity is one of the most studied constructs in the social sciences', by noting a steadily increasing number of publications over the past few decades.6 According to the authors, even the most fundamental question related with identity studies – 'who are you?' – 'masks a considerable amount of complexity'.7 As they observe, existing research on identity involves contents and processes, characteristics of the self and social recognition, self-reflection and intergroup discussion, interpersonal and intergroup interactions, biological characteristics, psychological dispositions, socio-demographic positions and interpretations infused with personal and social meaning, all of which result in the basic categorization of the three levels 'individual', 'relational' and 'collective'.8 A similar complexity regarding categorization and analytic terminology translates into studies on jazz identities, which - at least in relation to European jazz identities - have also experienced a growing interest in recent years. Examples therefore include Stuart Nicholson's controversial book Is Jazz Dead? (Or Has It Moved To A New Address),9 the recently published collection of essays Eurojazzland: Jazz and European Sources, Dynamics and Contexts10 and several studies of national jazz scenes in Europe.11 National jazz identities are also explored in the large, transnational research project Rhythm Changes, which is conducted as part of the Humanities in the European Research Area (HERA) theme ‘Cultural Dynamics: Inheritance and Identity’, a joint research program funded by thirteen national funding agencies.12 Rhythm Changes explores national jazz identities, representations and stereotypes using international comparison. The formation of a distinct local jazz identity in the Austrian city of Graz is the subject of interrogation in the research project Jazz & the City: Identity of a Capital of Jazz. It involves research into using the creative processes employed within jazz music as the basis for the creation of new knowledge on the concept of identity.
USBBF is embedded within these European-wide initiatives regarding identity in jazz as a specific local case-study and it is particularly connected to Jazz & the City in its exploration of a musical expression of the local identity of a distinct community, which is situated close to the city of Graz. In order to address the fundamental, and yet, complex question of – who are you? – in the present investigation I shall commence by providing a considerable amount of information on the community and the socio-cultural background of the project participants, who can be divided into various sub-groups. Based on this knowledge I will arrive at a characterization of their collective identity, discussed later in the text. Diversity as well as shared aspects regarding their interactions and socio-cultural background will be emphasized here.
All project participants represent distinct personalities, shaped through their individual family backgrounds, educational paths and professional activities. Some have spent their entire lives in the area, while others have lived several years abroad. Some have only recently moved in from abroad to become new members of the local community. At the time of the conduction of the project, all participants were based in or around the area of the district capital Bruck an der Mur, a mid-sized town with a population of roughly 13 000 in the region of Upper Styria in Austria, situated approximately fifty kilometers north of the province's capital Graz. Bruck an der Mur is characterized by its alpine location as well as by its historic significance as a trading centre. While most people in the city work in trade or services, the surrounding rural areas are still home to small and mid-size farms. The local music culture is based on: the strong presence of traditional ensembles including brass bands; small folk music groups and church choirs; classical music activities, in particular through the work of the public music school; and the vital youth music scene, comprising ensembles of jazz and various forms of popular music.
The project participants can be divided into several groups. The first group comprises the twenty-three members of the ‘High Styria Big Band’, which focuses on the interpretation of big band jazz, as well as the members of the traditional folk group ‘Die Pfeilstöcker’. The big band is a semi-professional ensemble consisting of recent university graduates, some of them engaged as local music teachers, and a few talented amateur musicians. The family-based group 'Die Pfeilstöcker' has had a career spanning more than fifty years of performing folk songs of the local area in a traditional way. The ensemble is well known in the region, but has also reached a wider popularity through appearances on national television and radio. The second group comprises the core audience of these two ensembles and consists of members of various social classes. A third group contains artists and service providers who are in close interaction with the ensembles, such as the technical staff and visual artists who were approached to design the CD booklet, posters and the website appearance. The fourth group consists of the ensemble leader Michael Pfeilstöcker, the manager Christian Theny and me as the designated composer of the work. The ensemble leader is related to the members of the vocal group ‘Die Pfeilstöcker’ and has been an active member of various local music ensembles as a trumpet player. The manager of the band was a member of the first successful jazz bands in the region and is well connected among the local society leaders. The last group comprises the saxophonist Herwig Gradischnig and the bassist Ewald Oberleitner, two of the best known jazz soloists born and raised in the area. The piece which features Gradischnig's performance is discussed in detail as part of this exposition, while Oberleitner's performance can be accessed on the CD recording only. Besides my role as the commissioned composer and author of the current exposition, I am also a genuine member of this community. I grew up in the region and was an active member of various local music ensembles before moving away to undertake formal music studies and professional work. After living abroad for several years I returned to take up an appointment at the institutes for jazz and jazz research at the University of Music and Performing Arts in Graz. After becoming reacquainted with my former colleagues in Bruck an der Mur, I became involved in the process of planning and finally conducting the project USBBF.
My own background and those of other individual project participants as well as the attributes of the various sub-groups add to an apparent diversity. However, there are shared attributes, which constitute larger sub-groups within the community and characterize the project participants as a large unified group. This refers to the social dimension of the question 'who are you?' and plays a formative role regarding the community's 'collective identity'. The authors of the Handbook of Identity summarize the wealth of scholarly ideas in the literature on the notion of collective identity as referring to 'people's identification with groups and social categories to which they belong, the meanings that they give to these social groups and categories, and the feelings, beliefs, and attitudes that result from identifying with them'.13 This definition opens up a wide array of directions for reflection regarding identity in the context of this project. In the following text, I will discuss some of the attributes in relation to the 'High Styria Big Band' and 'Die Pfeilstöcker', which stand out as the two main sub-groups of the community in the context of this study. I will particularly emphasize the musical practices of these two ensembles and will explore how the identification with either of these two ensembles and the musical practice they represent projects beyond these sub-groups into the wider community of the region.
The 'High Styria Big Band' comprises a broad selection of the local community, represented by music teachers at local schools and universities, local musicians both classical and jazz, and semi-professional music lovers with an understanding of the music practices in jazz and popular music. All of the band members share a passion for jazz, expressed in the various musical projects of the 'High Styria Big Band' and other local big bands. These projects, including USBBF, have initiated and intensified the participants' musical passion over a period of about thirty years. These larger ensembles and in particular the 'High Styria Big Band' have facilitated the personal and collective musical development through explorations of the core repertoire of the big band tradition. These activities have participated in the formation of close social bonds among band members. An important formative aspect in this regard was the pedagogical outreach activities of the institute of jazz. Various faculty ensembles presented jazz in the form of concerts in Bruck an der Mur since the 1980s, and selected faculty members were invited to perform and conduct clinics with the regional big bands. For me and my musical peers, then young aspiring jazz musicians, becoming part of the clinic band meant extra-curricular work, but also the recognition of being 'cool' as opposed to those musical peers who just did their classical training as required by the local music teachers. As a result of these clinics, several ensembles were formed in the region to pursue big band jazz on a regular basis, with the main focus on the seminal repertoire of the big band tradition.14 Some of the community members began formal studies in jazz at the institute of jazz in Graz. Through their training and their continuing activities in the rural community, an intensified form of identification with the big band tradition took place. Their studies, which involved analyses and performances of the music of seminal jazz composers such as Bill Holman, Bob Brookmeyer and Maria Schneider, contributed to the absorption of various aspects of these advanced musical approaches. The guest appearances by Bill Holman and Bob Brookmeyer at the jazz institute are still remembered as particularly formative experiences in this regard.15 For me as a composer, for instance, the passion for the music of these seminal jazz artists has translated into the music composed for USBBF. The contrapuntal setting in the introduction of the piece 'Steirerbua', which is discussed in Part II reflects my personal identification with a characteristic aspect of Bill Holman's music. The subtle harmonic colors and the long spans of musical tension, which are characteristic of Maria Schneider's music, had an impact on my composition 'Gebirge', which is also analyzed in Part II.
Throughout the about thirty years since the first big band clinics, jazz and its related forms of popular music have become an integral part of the music culture of the region. For instance, the continuing integration of jazz and popular music in this area is notable in the changing repertoire of brass bands. These bands play a substantial role in the musical education in rural areas and constitute one of the most visible traditional musical formats in Austria through a well-structured umbrella organization for brass music.16 Most of the brass players in the 'High Styria Big Band' were or still are members of these brass ensembles. Their engagement in the big band activities distinguishes them from the regular amateur 'Blasmusiker' [brass band member], which constitutes their identification with the social category of the 'cool' jazzer. Besides the attribute of being 'cool', the serious engagement in jazz and music has also offered other forms of identification for several of the community members who pursued formal music studies and earned academic degrees in either classical music or jazz. These forms involve references to the intellectual discourse on music among music students as well as to the public responsibility of local music teachers. The community's university graduates, who have become music teachers, have disseminated an awareness of the cultivated accomplishment in European classical music, American jazz and popular music among an even younger generation of music students in the region. This has contributed to the education of the current local society as an audience with an increasingly broad consciousness of classical music, jazz and popular music and an increased identification with these music forms as opposed to the majority of older community members.
Besides jazz and related popular music forms, traditional folk music has played a significant part in the early musical education of all community members and still plays an important role in the community's rituals in various forms, such as secular and religious festive events. Some of these traditional rituals involve the collective singing of traditional songs in the private setting of the region's families. This music practice is referred to in the German language as 'Hausmusik' [domestic music].17 While this practice was one of the rare forms of regular entertainment in the past, it still plays a role today. Barre Toelken's detailed field report on the musical practice of the Kössner family provides more insight in this regard.18 Almost all project participants have been exposed to this tradition and have gained a more than rudimentary understanding of its musical approach and song repertoire. 'Die Pfeilstöcker', as a notable sub-group within the project's community, has pursued 'Hausmusik' as a group of passionate amateurs and significant representatives of the folk tradition of the region. 'Die Pfeilstöcker' contribute not only to the formation of a specific collective identity in the course of their intimate performances, but also to the representation of this specific identity beyond their closer community. And yet, despite the wider success the Pfeilstöcker family has achieved in their career of more than 50 years, the group has remained situated within their regional community, both personally and culturally. All members live in close interaction with the community and have continued to perform at local events. Their performances usually take place in other people's homes for private festive events as well as on public stages at regional music festivals. In the very sense of 'Hausmusik', all their public appearances seek to convey the same intimacy as performing in their own house. Their song repertoire is well known among the local audiences. As shown in the analysis in Part II, the lyrics often refer to various aspects of life in the mountains, although the specific form of 'Jodler' [yodel-songs] does not involve any notable lyrics but melodic utterances on certain syllables. In my own perception, experiencing the performances of 'Die Pfeilstöcker' evokes nostalgic memories of my upbringing within the folk tradition. Most members of the community grew up with more or less exposure to the same tradition. Although many of us, including myself, have not learned to sing these songs, many of our close relatives such as my grandparents engaged in 'Hausmusik'. After dinner, somebody would start singing, often without announcing that he or she intended to perform. Others would follow, improvising a second and a third voice and a bass part to the melody and somebody would start accompanying on a guitar, for instance. The musical sensations of 'Hausmusik' constitutes a collective and highly emotional experience and creates a form of collective identity for those involved as performers and listeners, which refers to what Toekken describes as 'a sense of belonging, of knowing, of performing together'.19
This emotionally informed form of knowledge and collective identification is approached in the project USBBF by integrating both, musical aspects of the well-known traditional folk song repertoire, as well as the actual performance by 'Die Pfeilstöcker', which can be observed in the audio/video representations of the recorded performances of the music in Part II. The opening phrase of the folk song 'Wir kommen vom Gebirg' [We come from the Mountains], for instance, is developed throughout my composition 'Gebirge' [Mountains], as shown in Part II. The traditional song 'I bin a Steirerbua' [I am a boy from Styria] involves the two layers of a naïve reflection of life in the mountains in the lyrics and an underlying melancholy in the shape of its melody, which is represented by my juxtaposition of harsh sounding instrumental tutti passages and the folk group's original performance of the song within the big band composition.
The group's discussion of the notion of authenticity was centered on the project's aim to create new compositions as an 'authentic expression of the community's cultural traditions'. These cultural traditions were exemplified in the previous section as 'Hausmusik', but what does the notion of authenticity involve in this regard? The project participants have again faced some difficulties in negotiating the meaning of the term. Similar to the concept of identity, the notion of authenticity refers to a wide range of definitions and attributes and has become a widely used 'catchphrase' in the popular discourse in the second half of the twentieth century.20 I will discuss some of the project participants’ thoughts and feelings, which were expressed in group discussions, in the following paragraphs.
In the group’s perception, there is a clear distinction between 'volkstümliche Musik' [music based on folk] and 'echte' [real] folk music. According to the German musicologist Eckhard John, this dualistic view of folk music in the German speaking countries originated in the nineteenth century and has prevailed in the popular discourse.21 The Austrian musicologist Wolfgang Suppan mapped the term authenticity and folk music in relation to the historic beginnings of Styrian folklore studies, initiated by early research on folk-oriented life and culture by the Austrian archduke Johann in the early nineteenth century.22 The archduke's legacy regarding 'romantic folklore studies' by advancing the collection of folkloristic art and by romanticizing rural life, as observed by Ingo Schneider,23 still remains intact in today's folk culture of the region.24 In this sense, the term authentic is connected to folk music based on those preserved traditions, which come to life in the music practices of 'echte Volksmusik'. The community undoubtedly regards the music of 'Die Pfeilstöcker' as 'echte' or authentic folk music in its adherence to the oral tradition regarding performance practice and repertoire, as opposed to 'volkstümliche Musik', which is perceived as a superficial and commercial fusion of pop music with folkloristic elements. In a self-reflection of the members of 'Die Pfeilstöcker', their own performances appear authentic as they are regarded as re-interpretations of the traditional repertoire and music practice passed on from previous generations.25 Invitations of 'Die Pfeilstöcker' to participate in festivals, television and radio shows advertised as promoting 'real' folk music have supported their self-image through the appraisal of their audience. This indicates what Allen Moore describes as ‘first person authenticity’, which ‘arises when an originator (composer, performer) succeeds in conveying the impression that his/her utterance is one of integrity, that it represents an attempt to communicate in an unmediated form with an audience’.26 Hence, the success of 'Die Pfeilstöcker' in mediating their authentic expression is not only dependent on the folk groups musical conception and performance, but also on other people's agreement and rapport. The audience of 'Die Pfeilstöcker' participates in the definition of 'first person authenticity' through their acknowledgment of the folk group's performance according to a shared value system regarding integrity and traditional identity. Indeed, as described earlier, the community members share similar experiences regarding the musical practice of 'Hausmusik' and tend to assess the performance of 'Die Pfeilstöcker' accordingly. This collective definition of authenticity through the folk group and their audience evokes the attributes of 'social authenticity', described by Johan Fornäs and developed by Moore: ‘“Social authenticity” is ensured in an act of judgement legitimate within a particular community’.27 Moore's statement summarizes what has been said before: The authentic self-perception of 'Die Pfeilstöcker' is assessed by an audience based on similar value criteria, which, in turn, supports the folk groups self-image. Thus, the definition of authenticity regarding the performance of 'Die Pfeilstöcker' appears to be based on a continuous cycle of affirmations among the community members according to a shared appreciation of the traditions upon which the musical practice is based.
In relation to the 'High Styria Big Band', the notion of authenticity appears under different circumstances. Although it also refers to a tradition of performance practice – the big band tradition – this obviously does not involve the same historical scope in the community in comparison to 'Hausmusik'. Big band jazz emerged in the United States and has become a component of the region's musical history for no more than one or two generations. Big band jazz constitutes a factor in the formation of the community's identity, and yet to claim authenticity on the performance of the 'High Styria Big Band' in the same regard as observed in the performances of 'Die Pfeilstöcker' would be deceptive. It would resemble Theodor Adorno's critical definition of authenticity as an illusionary concept in the form of a 'jargon' used by the members of the 'High Styria Big Band' to claim 'something higher than what they mean'.28 The community, however, has indeed meant to create something 'higher' with regards to a rigorous advancement of their previous artistic potential. We were striving towards an artistic ideal. We had a vague idea in our minds, without exactly knowing the shape it would take. The project's goal was defined according to this vague, idealized idea of advancing the musical expression of the big band to the 'highest possible artistic level'. This search for authenticity in the envisioned new compositions broadly reflects the concept of the contemporary philosopher Charles Taylor regarding the process of seeking authenticity as a 'struggle'.29 Although Taylor refers to the broad context of modern capitalist societies, this conception expresses very much, how this process was perceived by the project participants. We knew that it will take a lot of effort to realize our preliminary idea and we were aware of the demands of our high aspirations. We were struggling to realize our goals. A further differentiation between 'higher and lower ways' of seeking authenticity is also proposed by Taylor.30 Since USBBF was defined to fulfil a 'higher', idealized artistic vision based on an collective experience and not to serve any other lower level purposes such as commercial interests or the mere self-promotion, for instance, the community feels represented by Taylor's definition of a higher way of seeking authenticity towards what he calls the 'moral ideal'.31
Saxophonist Gradischnig's improvised solo cadenza as part of the composition 'Steirerbua' serves the 'moral ideal' in this sense. Before the recording, Gradischnig was told to remember his personal upbringing within the folk tradition of the community. No further musical instructions were given. Although Gradischnig has developed a highly idiosyncratic approach throughout his career, he was able to abstain from falling back on his own clichés, which would have meant a simple way to promote his musical style. Instead, Gradischnig's improvisation, which can be observed on the audio/video recording in Part II of this exposition, transcends his personal approach by developing melodic elements found in the traditional folk music of the region in an original way. By doing so, Gradischnig morally adhered to the ideal of reflecting on the community's traditions in a meaningful way. Similarly, I felt obligated to approach the 'moral ideal' in my own conception of the compositional process in Taylor's sense of referring to 'self-fulfilment' and 'being true to oneself'.32 I felt a moral obligation to develop the music according to our goals and I derived self-fulfilment, which I usually find independently in the creation of my very own musical ideas, as a result from our collective approach.
USBBF reflects Taylor's moral ideal as a collective form of self-fulfilment, which becomes experienced as being true to 'ourselves' in the sense of Moore's 'collective authenticity' on more than one level. It involves USBBF's artistic decisions on a general level as well as details in the compositional process. For instance, the fundamental choice of jazz styles, such as swing, Bossa-Nova, Salsa and Jazz-Rock was based on a collective decision according to the musical preferences of the band members. Consequently, I purposely developed details of my harmonic and melodic ideas in relation to the core repertoire of the big band. For instance, the piece 'Turlhofer' (to be heard on the CD only) derives its harmonic structure from Kurt Weill's well-known song 'Mack the Knife', which has been one the band's favorite pieces in the band book. The melodic structure in 'Turlhofer' refers to a development of a traditional folk melody in an orchestration for flugelhorn and tenor saxophone, which is intended to evoke associations of Sammy Nestico's big band arrangement of his composition 'Hay Burner', another band favorite. On an emotional level, the harmonic structure of the opening section in my composition 'Gebirge' aims for the purport of solitude and a form of spirituality, which I have experienced in unaccompanied mountain hikes, as well as by listening to the Jodler performances of 'Die Pfeilstöcker'.