Books and Articles

John F. Adams, ‘“Wulf and Eadwacer”: An Interpretation’, Modern Language Notes, 73.1 (1958), 1–5 <> [accessed 24 April 2019].


Theodor W. Adorno, ‘Music, Language, and Composition’, trans. by Susan Gillespie, The Musical Quarterly, 77.3 (1993), 401–414 <> [accessed 6 August 2016].


Rita Aiello, ‘Music and Language: Parallels and Contrasts’, in Musical Perceptions, ed. by Rita Aiello with John A. Sloboda (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1994), pp. 40–63.


Julian Anderson, ‘Harmonic Practices in Oliver Knussen's Music since 1988: Part I’, Tempo, 221 (2002), 2–13 <>  [accessed 1 May 2019].


Istvan Anhalt, ‘Pst…Pst…Are You Listening? Hearing Voices from Yesterday’, in The Companion to Contemporary Musical Thought, 2 vols (London: Routledge, 1992), II, pp. 977–992.


Peter S. Baker, ‘The Ambiguity of “Wulf and Eadwacer”’, Studies in Philology, 78.5 (1981), 39–51 <> [accessed 24 April 2019].


Christopher Bannerman, ‘Reflections on Practice as Research: The University, the Artist, the Research Endeavour’, Digital Creativity, 15.2 (2004), 65–70 <>

Natasha Barrett, ‘Trends in Electroacoustic Music’, in The Cambridge Companion to Electronic Music, ed. by Nick Collins and Julio d’Escriván, 2nd edn (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2017), pp. 201–224.


Roland Barthes, Image Music Text, ed. and trans. by Stephen Heath (London: Fontana Press, 1977).


Luciano Berio, Luciano Berio: Two Interviews with Rossana Dalmonte and Bálint András Varga, ed. and trans. by David Osmond-Smith (London: Marion Boyars, 1985).


Bruno Bossis, ‘La voix des sirènes: Thema — Omaggio a Joyce de Luciano Berio’, in Le Modèle Vocal: la musique, la voix, la langue, ed. by Bruno Bossis, Marie-Noëlle Masson and Jean-Paul Olive (Rennes: Presses Universitaires de Rennes, 2007), pp. 22–32.


Bruno Bossis, La voix et la machine: la vocalité artificielle dans la musique contemporaine (Rennes: Presses Universitaires de Rennes, 2005).


Bruno Bossis, ‘Une écoute ambiguë ou la quête d’universaux: l’exemple de la vocalité électroacoustique’, in Musiques Électroacoustiques: Analyses↔︎Écoutes, ed. by Nicolas Marty (Sampzon: Éditions Delatour France, 2016), pp. 139–154.


James Boswell, The Life of Samuel Johnson, ed. by David Womersley (London: Penguin, 2008).


Pierre Boulez, Orientations: Collected Writings, ed. by Jean-Jaques Nattiez, trans. by Martin Cooper (London: Faber, 1986).


Michel Chion, Audio-Vision: Sound on Screen, ed. and trans. by Claudia Gorbman (New York: Columbia University Press, 1994).

Michel Chion, The Voice in Cinema, ed. and trans. by Claudia Gorbman (New York: Columbia University Press, 1999).


Danielle Cohen-Levinas, La voix au-delà du chant: une fenêtre aux ombres (Paris: Vrin, 2006).


Stef Conner, ‘Early Words to Late Music: The Value of Practice-led Research in Composition as a Companion to the Analysis of Old English Poetic Metre’, in Principles of Music Composing: The Phenomenon of Rhythm, ed. by Rimantas Janeliauskas (Vilnius, Lithuania: 13th International Music Theory Conference, 16 October 2013) <http://ž> [accessed 5 June 2019], 86–99.


Stef Conner, ‘Very Early Music’, Stef Conner <> [accessed 2 April 2019].

John Croft, ‘Composition Is Not Research’, TEMPO, 69.272 (2015), 6–11.


Joanna Demers, Listening Through the Noise: The Aesthetics of Experimental Electronic Music (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2010).


Lucile Desblache, ‘Tales of the Unexpected: Opera as a New Art of Glocalization’, in Music, Text and Translation, ed. by Helen Julia Minors (London: Bloomsbury, 2013), pp. 9–19.


‘Description’, European Music Archaeology Project <> [accessed 2 April 2019].


Marilyn Desmond, ‘The Voice of Exile: Feminist Literary History and the Anonymous Anglo-Saxon Elegy’, Critical Inquiry, 16.3 (1990), 572–590. <> [accessed 1 May 2019].


Umberto Eco, The Open Work, trans. by Anna Cancogni (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1989).


Nina Sun Eidsheim, Sensing Sound: Singing & Listening as Vibrational Practice (Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 2015).

Nina Sun Eidsheim, The Race of Sound: Listening, Timbre, and Vocality in African American Music (Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 2019). 

Simon Emmerson, Living Electronic Music (Aldershot: Ashgate, 2007).

Exeter, Cathedral Library, MS Exeter Dean and Chapter 3501 [The Exeter Book], fols 8–130.


Steven Roger Fischer, A History of Reading (London: Reaktion Books, 2003) EBSCOhost E-Book


Roberta Frank, ‘Terminally Hip and Incredibly Cool: Carol, Vikings, and Anglo-Scandinavian England’, Representations, 100.1 (2007), 23–33 <> [accessed 24 April 2019].


Donald K. Fry, ‘“Wulf and Eadwacer”: A Wen Charm’, The Chaucer Review, 5.4 (1971), 247–263 <> [accessed 24 April 2019].

Guidance on Submissions (Bristol: REF, 2019) <> [accessed 20 February 2020].

‘Marta Gentilucci’, <> [accessed 1 June 2019].


Anthony Gritten, ‘Determination and Negotiation in Artistic Practice as Research in Music’, in Artistic Practice as Research in Music: Theory, Criticism, Practice, ed. by Mine Doğantan-Dack (Farnham: Ashgate, 2015), pp. 73–90.


Jonathan Harvey, Music and Inspiration (London: Faber, 1999).


Jonathan Harvey, ‘The Metaphysics of Live Electronics’, Contemporary Music Review, 18.3 (1999), 79–82 <>


Richard M. Hogg, A Grammar of Old English: Volume 1: Phonology (Oxford: Blackwell, 1992).

Gary S. Kendall, ‘Listening and Meaning: How a Model of Mental Layers Informs Electroacoustic Music Analysis’, in Expanding the Horizon of Electroacoustic Music Analysis, ed. by Simon Emmerson and Leigh Landy (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2016) pp. 31–57.


Gary S. Kendall, ‘The Feeling Blend: Feeling and Emotion in Electroacoustic Art’, Organised Sound, 19 (2014), 192–202 <>


Cathy Lane, ‘Voices from the Past: Compositional Approaches to Using Recorded Speech’, Organised Sound, 11.1 (2006), 3–11 <>


Kemp Malone, ‘Two English Frauenlieder’, Comparative Literature, 14.1 (1962), 106–117 <> [accessed 25 April 2019].


Bruce Mitchell and Fred C. Robinson, A Guide to Old English, 5th edn (Oxford: Blackwell, 1999).


Adrian Moore, Sonic Art: An Introduction to Electroacoustic Music Composition (London: Routledge, 2016).


Jean-Jaques Nattiez, Music and Discourse: Towards a Semiology of Music, trans. by Carolyn Abbate (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1990).


Luigi Nono, Nostalgia for the Future: Luigi Nono’s Selected Writings and Interviews, ed. By Angela Ida Benedictis and Veniero Rizzardi (Oakland, CA: University of California Press, 2018).

Ian Pace, ‘Composition and Performance Can Be, and Often Have Been, Research’, Tempo, 70.275 (2016), 60–70.


David Pountney, ‘A Note about Language’, in Welsh National Opera: Wagner Dream (Summer 2013 Programme Book), p. 52.

Pierre Schaeffer, Treatise on Musical Objects: An Essay Across Disciplines, trans. by Christine North and John Dack (Oakland, CA: University of California Press, 2017).


Hazel Smith and Roger T. Dean, ‘Introduction: Practice-led Research, Research-led Practice — Towards the Iterative Cyclic Web’ in Practice-led Research, Research-led Practice in the Creative Arts, ed. by Hazel Smith and Roger T. Dean (Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 2009), pp. 1–38, ProQuest Ebook Central [accessed 5 June 2019].


Hazel Smith ‘The Voice in Computer Music and Its Relationship to Place, Identity and Community’, in The Oxford Handbook of Computer Music, ed. by Roger T. Dean (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2009), pp. 274–293.


Sophie Stévance and Serge Lacasse, Research Creation in Music and the Arts: Towards a Collaborative Interdiscipline (Abingdon: Routledge, 2018).


Seiichi Suzuki, ‘Wulf and Eadwacer: A Reinterpretation and Some Conjectures’, Neuphilologische Mitteilungen, 88.2 (1987), 175–185 <> [accessed 13 June 2019]


The Exeter Book Riddles, ed. and trans. by Kevin Crossley-Holland, revised edn (London: Penguin, 1993).


Barry Truax, ‘A Voice for All Seasons’, in Playing With Words: The Spoken Word in Artistic Practice, ed. by Cathy Lane (London: Creative Research into Sound Arts Practice; Cromford: Research Group for Artists Publications, 2008), pp. 192–195.


Trevor Wishart, On Sonic Art, new edn, ed. and rev. by Simon Emmerson (Amsterdam: Harwood Academic, 1996).


Trevor Wishart, ‘Sound Symbols and Landscapes’, in The Language of Electroacoustic Music, ed. by Simon Emmerson (London: Macmillan, 1986), pp. 41–60.

Alexa Woloshyn, ‘Electroacoustic Voices: Sounds Queer, and Why It Matters’, Tempo, 71.280 (2017), 68–79.

Andrea Young, ‘The Voice Index and Digital Voice Interface’, Leonardo Music Journal, 24 (2014), 3–5 <>

Miriama Young, Singing the Body Electric: The Human Voice and Sound Technology (Farnham: Ashgate, 2015).

Musical Works


Natasha Barrett, …The Fetters of a Dream..., Electroacoustic Composition (2005).


Luciano Berio, Sequenza III per voci femminile (London: Universal, 1968).


Luciano Berio, Thema (Omaggio a Joyce), Tape Composition (1958).


Gavin Bryars, From Egil’s Saga (London: Schott, 2004).


Stef Conner, Hord Songs (Unpublished: 2012).


Chaya Czernowin, Pnima… ins Innere (London: Schott, 2010).


Jonathan Harvey, Wagner Dream (London: Faber, 2006).


Tarik O’Regan, Acallam na Senórach: an Irish Colloquy (London: Novello, 2010).


Tarik O’Regan, The Spring (London: Novello, 2008).


Kaija Saariaho, L’Amour de loin (London: Chester Music, 2000).


Kaija Saariaho, Lonh (London: Chester Music, 2005).


Karlheinz Stockhausen, Gesang der Jünglinge, Tape Composition (1955–1956).


Trevor Wishart, Encounters in the Republic of Heaven, Tape Composition (2011).


Trevor Wishart, Globalalia, Tape Composition (2004).


Trevor Wishart, Red Bird: A Document (York: University of York Music Press, 1977).


Trevor Wishart, Vox 1 (York: University of York Music Press, 1982).


Trevor Wishart, Vox 2 (York: University of York Music Press, 1984).


Trevor Wishart, Vox 3 (York: University of York Music Press, 1985).


Trevor Wishart, Vox 4 (York: University of York Music Press, 1988).


Trevor Wishart, Vox 6 (York: University of York Music Press, 1989).



i.Audio CDs and Audio Files


Natasha Barrett, …The Fetters of a Dream..., electronic download (Aurora, 2005), in Kraftfelt, available at <> [Accessed 20 November 2017].


Luciano Berio, Sequenzas III & VII, Différences, Due Pezzi, Chamber Music, Cathy Berberian (soprano), Heinz Holliger (Oboe), Julliard Ensemble, Recorded April 1967 (Newton Classics 8802040, 2011).


Luciano Berio, Thema (Omaggio a Joyce), electronic download (Sub Rosa, 2013), in An Anthology of Noise & Electronic Music, Vol. 7, available at <> [accessed 6 June 2019].


Gavin Bryars, From Egil’s Saga, Rúni Brattberg (bass), Eystanljóð (choir), Aldubáran (chamber orchestra), Gavin Bryars (conductor), [CD] Recorded at Nordic House, Tórshavn, Faroe Islands, November 2011, in Hövdingar Hittast: Heroes Meet (GB Records BCGBCD20, 2013).


Stef Conner, Hord Songs [CD] (2013).


Jonathan Harvey, Wagner Dream, Claire Booth, Gordon Gietz, Matthew Best, Dale Duesing, Rebecca de Pont Davies, Richard Angas (soloists), John Leysen, Catherine ten Bruggencate, Bracha van Doesburgh, Charles van Tassel, Jane Oakland, Basja Chanowsky (actors), Ictus Ensemble, Martyn Brabbins (conductor), Gilbert Nouno (IRCAM computer music designer), [CD] Recorded at Westerngasfabrik, Amsterdam, June 2007 (Cypres CYP5624, 2012).


Tarik O’Regan, Acallam na Senórach: an Irish Colloquy, National Chamber Choir of Ireland, Stewart French (guitar), Paul Hillier (conductor), [CD] Recorded at O’Reilly Theatre, Wexford Opera House, Ireland, February–March 2011 (Harmonia Mundi HMU 807486, 2011).


Kaija Saariaho, L’amour de loin, Daniel Belcher (tenor), Ekaterina Lekhina (soprano), Marie-Ange Todorovitch (mezzo-soprano), Rundfunkchor Berlin, Deutsches Symphonie-Orchester Berlin, Kent Nagano (conductor). [CD] Recorded at Teldex Studio, Berlin, March 2006 and Bavaria Musik-Studios, Munich, October 2008. (Harmonia Mundi HMC801937.38, 2009).


Kaija Saariaho, Lonh, Dawn Upshaw (soprano), Reijo Kiilunen (producer), Franck Rossi (engineer), David Poissonier (engineer). [CD] Recorded at IRCAM, Paris, March 1997. In: Private Gardens (Ondine ODE 9062, 1997).


Trevor Wishart, Globalalia, Imago [CD] (OTP 0066, 2004).

Trevor Wishart, Encounters in the Republic of Heaven [CD] (2010).

Trevor Wishart, Red Bird: A Political Prisoner’s Dream, electronic download (Sub Rosa, 1977), available at <> [accessed 7 June 2016].


ii.DVD and Video


Chaya Czernowin, Pnima… Ins Innere, Richard Beek, Philip Larson, Tom Sol, Elias Maurides, Ute Wasserman, Silke Storz (voices), Anthony Burr (clarinet), Rico Gubler (saxophone), Andreas Eberle (trombone), David Shivley (singing saw, percussion), Mary Oliver (viola), Frank Cox (violoncello), Munich Chamber Orchestra, André Richard, Michael Acker, Reinhold Braig (sound direction), Johannes Kalitzke (conductor), [DVD] Recorded at 7. Münchener Biennale, 2000. (Mode 169, 2006).


Kaija Saariaho, L’Amour de loin, Gerald Finley (baritone), Dawn Upshaw (soprano), Monica Groop (mezzo-soprano), Finnish National Opera Orchestra, Finnish National Opera Chorus, Esa-Pekka Salonen (conductor), Peter Sellars (stage director). [DVD] Recorded at the Finnish National Opera, Helsinki, Finland, September 2004 (Deutsche Grammophon 00440 073 4026, 2005).

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