<UN>©Deana B. Davalos & Jamie Opper, 2015 | doi 10.1163/9789004230699_005This is an open access chapter distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial 3.0 Unported (CC-BY-NC 3.0) License.*Colorado State University, USA.

chapter 4

Time Processing in Schizophrenia

Deana B. Davalos* and Jamie Opper*

Time is inside as well as outside of ourselves. Time is a perception. It is part of the outside world, but it is also a sensation immediately experi-enced in ourselves. We organize and crystalize the perception of time into the connotation of a continuous flowing time, which we measure by clocks, and we try to apply the same measures to the time experience in ourselves, to what we may call time sensation.... Time is an inherent part of the world of perception, outside and inside the body. (Schilder, 1936)

1.   Introduction

Schilder (1936) described his conception of time in his paper, Psychopathology of Time, which addressed time perception and the idea that various types of psychopathology involved a disturbance in time perception. Schilder wrote the paper while at Bellevue Psychiatric Hospital and detailed a variety of disor-ders and the possible temporal distortion associated with each type of pathology. About schizophrenia, he quotes a patient who says, “I can’t orient myself in the world – I am not clear anymore...I continue to live in eternity. There is no hour, no noon, no night.... Time does not move. I am wavering between past and future.” Schilder’s observations of timing dysfunction in his schizophrenic patients led him to ask, “...why does the schizophrenic give up his time experience? What does time mean for him?” The questions regarding time perception and the role timing plays in schizophrenia continue to perplex researchers today. Our understanding of time processing in schizophrenia has developed over the years from a once rather simplistic view of temporal dysfunction to an elaborate organization of temporal deficits that span from simple sensory measures of timing to higher order processes. And while it has been argued for decades that time processing is disrupted in schizophrenia, the breadth of the implications stemming from those temporal deficits have grown to include areas of clinical symptomatology, social and emotional processing, language, to higher order cognitive processes.

   Conceptually, our capacity to process time is viewed as an ability that plays a critical role in our perception of the world around us. Navon (1978) wrote that our perception of the world consists of a hierarchy of dimensions and that time is at the top of that hierarchy. The ability to process time has been associated with relatively basic tasks such as planning and sequencing and processing basic sensory input to higher order processes that are involved in athletic ability, driving, language, walking, and musical ability (Eagleman et al., 2005; Eagleman, 2009; Ferrandez et al., 2003; Macar et al., 2006; Mangels et al., 1998; Tracy et al., 1998). Given the widespread collection of behaviors, actions, and cognitive processes that appear to be influenced by timing, investigators have begun to speculate whether deficits in information processing and higher level cognitive processing that have been associated with dysexecutive syndrome, and schizophrenia specifically, may be in part due to temporal dysfunction (Macar and Vidal, 2009; Volz et al., 2001). And while time processing may not have a place in the scientific literature as extensive as other cognitive processes, such as attention, working memory, or inhibition, there are indicators that suggest that the magnitude of the importance of intact temporal processing is beginning to be understood. First, Head and colleagues (2008) have recently included time processing as one of the few possible “cognitive primitives” or what is described as basic neuropsychological processess that have broad influence on other cognitive functions, but cannot be separated into component processes themselves (Salthouse, 1985; Verhaeghen and Salthouse, 1997; Zacks and Hasher, 1994). While Head et al. have introduced the idea that time perception has a place in the hierarchy of cognitive processes alongside what have been viewed as fundamental cognitive capacities, such as inhibition and processing speed, there have been relatively few studies that can be used to support the argument. Cognitive primitives cannot, by definition, be separated into component processes and many of the current studies assessing time processing highlight the complexity of measuring temporal processing as most timing tasks generally involve some degree of attentional resources, decision making, and vigilance. Head’s proposal, nonetheless, highlights the fact that timing is now considered as being a foundational cognitive process that may be involved in widespread dysfunction. The idea that temporal processing may lead to some type of dysfunction highlights the second indicator that stresses the magnitude of the importance of intact time processing.

   The scientific literature is rich with studies assessing clinical populations and how time processing may be at the root of clinical symptomatology and deficits associated with various disorders. While it is beyond the scope of this chapter to address all of the types of psychopathology associated with temporal processing, included in the list of clinical disorders and/or clinical features (...)



Graph 1a: Transforming of the Malva flower as a motif into a multi-layered open score

Graph 1b: Transforming of the Malva flower as a motif into a multi-layered open score

Graph 2a: Empty space is an existing space which refers to the reference. (Mac Cumhaill argues in her contribution Specular Space, that the “empty space” of the depicted object is not physical empty space but is rather a mental “empty space” of specular experience through superficial phenomenon, which is able to be explained today through cognitive neuroscience and cognitive psychology scientifically. My artistic position is the same as Cage’s artistic position in this context, that he was always as an artist, not from and not towards technology, even if his idea was in the context of art and science. Thereby, I artistically explore the ethics of science in our lives.)

Graph 2b: What do I see from this object?

Graph 2c: A starting point of 3D draft (The limitations of sound expression are the range of audible sound and their transmission of how we humans can feel them.)

Graph 3: Color scale_basic

Graph 4a:  A starting point of multi-open score for a layers; A drawing of topological space and time to transform from biological to musical.

Graph 4b: The starting point of Multi-Layered Open Score

Graph 5: Sketches from the score Ephemeris/Ekleipsis with the Set-up (two adjacent rooms at AdK Berlin) of 16 loudspeakers (Valerio Sannicandro)

(It refers to “Listening to Instruments.” Instruments for New Music: Sound, Technology, and Modernism, by Thomas Patteson in the theoretical exploration.)

Graph 6: Sketch for diffusion/non-diffusion Sound system

(Graph 1– 4: Drawings for a.o.i. - lasting memories by Erika Matsunami, ©Erika Matsunami/private, 2013/2020–2021, Berlin)

(Graph 5: Sketches from the score Ephemeris/Ekleipsis with the Set-up (two adjacent rooms at AdK Berlin) of 16 loudspeakers by Valerio Sannicandro,©Valerio Sannicandro/private, 2015)

(Graph 6: Drawing for a.o.i. - lasting memories by Erika Matsunami, ©Erika Matsunami/private, 2020–2021, Berlin)


Image 1: File:Genome map of the bacteriophage ΦX174 showing overlapping genes.svg - Wikimedia Commons

Image 2: Nucleic acid sequence

Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD) Mechanism of Disease


Artistic research “Variations”: On Klänge - Space, Time and Body by Erika Matsunami

Artistic research “Graphy”: GRAPHY by Erika Matsunami


Matsunami, Erika, Monograph "still/silent", Berlin: Revolver publishing, 2011




Sannicandro, Valerio, Dissertation, “Toward space as autonomous music parameter, targets and methods”,  Space and Spatialization as Discrete Parameter in Music Composition, Technische Universität Berlin, 2014, pp. 31–33.




Additional information: 

Add. Participants for a demo track are a pianist (Interpreter) N.N and a sound engineer (the recording and the mixing) N.N. 

A future variation in 2022 for the performance, a pianist by N.N, live electronics by Erika Matsunami and/or N.N in the 6-ch mono-discrete sound system, Valerio Sannicandro for rehearsal and performance, a sound engineer N.N.





  • Mac Cumhaill, Clare. “Specular Space.” Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society, vol. 111, 2011, pp. 487–495.

  • “Listening to Instruments.” Instruments for New Music: Sound, Technology, and Modernism, by Thomas Patteson, University of California Press, Oakland, California, 2016, pp. 1–17. 

  • O' Callaghan, Casey, Beyond Vision: Philosophical Essays, Oxford: OUP, 2017.

  • Schulze Holger, Sonic Fiction, London: Bloomsbury Publishing, 2020.

Chapter Title: Time Processing in SchizophreniaChapter Author(s): Deana B. Davalos and Jamie OpperBook Title: Time Distortions in MindBook Subtitle: Temporal Processing in Clinical PopulationsBook Editor(s): A. Vatakis and M.J. AllmanPublished by: BrillStable URL: https://www.jstor.org/stable/10.1163/j.ctt1w8h2wk.9

– Semi-formalism from twofoldness to manifoldness for the concept practically and theoretically.

- Mappe_a.o.i. - lasting memories

Limina (2019) for 6 musicians/Valerio Sannicandro

- A short portfolio_a.o.i. - lasting memories

Ephemeris/Ekleipsis (2015) for two musicians in two adjacent spaces - 1st Part Ephemeris (recording at AdK, Berlin)/Valerio Sannicandro

B.O.D.Y. (2010) 2-1/Erika Matsunami & Niklas Schmincke

B.O.D.Y. - piece of glass (2012)/Erika Matsunami & Niklas Schmincke

Performance (still/silent, 2010)/Chris Dahlgren & Erika Matsunami

still/silent (2007 – 2011): Still/Silent 6-ch Mono-discrete Sound for 2-ch Video Installation/Erika Matsunami & Niklas Schmincke

The working method is interactive in two different paths of artistic intention.

The common artistic subject thereby is Envisionsenvision(ing) at auditory and visual levels.

Cross-disciplinary, Transdisciplinary. 



Project description a.o.i. - lasting memories

Research, Excahnge, Music Pre-Prodcution 

In the context of the philosophy of language in which is not the context of the philosophy of art.:

-> It is the medical doctor who knows the individual, and the patient who consults with the medical doctor. The medical doctors consider the ethical point of view. If they do not consider the ethical point of view, they are not a medical doctor.

In this context, the scientific literature is profound and deep.


I deal with the medical ethics of space, time and body musically. It is my task currently.


Study of Biology, Neuroscience, Physics, Mathematics, Aesthetics (since 2015 have been studing online/künstlerische Fortbildung für Professionälle Künstler*in):

in 2020,

How Does the Body Use DNA as a Blueprint?

University of Aberdeen (With the test and the certificate)

and other courses in science (neuroscience, medicine, and others)


in 2021

Genomic Technologies in Clinical Diagnostics: Molecular Techniques,

Molecular Techniques, Genomic Technologies in Clinical Diagnostics: Next Generation SequencingSt George's, University of London

Whole Genome Sequencing, Health Education England

Study of medical ethics in regards to arts and ethics.


As a music score for a music approximately 15—20 minutes, it is a score of "slow music" full of emptiness as an existing space.

->It means that all medical doctors ought to study medical ethics.

-> It is musically recitative, an oratorio (how I expressed it with piano freely, and consists of 6-ch mono-discrete sound system (installation) as a sonic-painting for 2-ch videos.)


Space, Time and Body

The doctoral thesis by Sannicandro, in which part is the most interesting for me is on "Edgar Varsèe (1883 – 1965)", who has coined "Organized Sound", and the Father of electronic music in the USA.

He concieved the elements of his music in terms of "sound-masse", which created the musical form of natural phenohmenon of crystallization.

Which juxposte to Cage's* term of "Sound Organization" in the post-war, in the USA.

*American composer,  John Cage (1912 – 1992) 

I think that Varsèe's work was the idea of the circumstances and also circular topologically.

Sound "Empty City" for the performance (Live electronics), I call it "Luft", that is a contemporary "aria" of this piece. I created the noise with the material of plastics.

What is interesting for me in Lucier's artwork, which is his solution to the acoustic phenomenon in his composition, how he dealt with it as and in his creation.

My appreciation of the aesthetics of attention is a stimulus that evokes memory through multisensory from the aspect of neuroscience, that might be an aesthetic intervention. Therefore, as attention "It looks nice.", that is an impact, I can forget it soon. From the aspect of neuroscience, if we don't have the aesthetic intervention (from the outer world), our information in brain won't generate, that is an aesthetic experience in everyday life. Also, it could be a re-newed aesthetic experience.

Thereby the common subject with Valerio Sannicandro is "autonomy of the art" with two different paths of autonomous in arts to which regards with space, time and body.

“Aesthetic attention beyond the object” (in a sense, "beyond the subject")



In her contribution Specular Space, Mac Cumhaill argues that the “empty space” of a depicted object is not physical empty space but rather it is a mental “empty space” of specular experience through superficial phenomenon. It can be explained in today’s cognitive neuroscience and cognitive psychology. With two-dimensional images on the Internet, we see the image on the screen. In fact, this surface is an empty space, the sound overlaps the images that directly give us the attention, which is simulated as if “awareness” that calls the futuristic "impact" of things or events. In this paper, I explore “aesthetic attention”, particularly from the auditory sense of things and events. Thereby, I question, “How are we paying attention in everyday life?” particularly in non-human and human society. How might our attention be changing in contemporary society and its environment? These questions address to attention as an aesthetic experience in regards to the contribution Specular Space by Mac Cumhaill. (...)




-       Mac Cumhaill, Clare. “Specular Space.” Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society, vol. 111, 2011, pp. 487–495.

-       “Listening to Instruments.” Instruments for New Music: Sound, Technology, and Modernism, by Thomas Patteson, University of California Press, Oakland, California, 2016, pp. 1–17.

-       O' Callaghan, Casey, Beyond Vision: Philosophical Essays, Oxford: OUP, 2017.

-       Schulze Holger, Sonic Fiction, London: Bloomsbury Publishing, 2020.

Arnold Schönberg (1874 – 1951)

Schönberg wrote on Brahms's work.

Johannes Brahms (1833 – 1897)

-> For that in sommer 2014, I gave up all computer softwares, as well as photoshop, and restarted to study current science and aesthetics, also in the digital photography.

Empty space is an existing space.

- A short portfolio_a.o.i. - lasting memories

Liberal arts in the 21st century.

The composers like Alvin Lucier and many others have created their own concept out of the norm. They have never shown the audience "As if it is a sophisticated act.".

Today, artists believe that the result of their actions in their concept as phenomenal and sophisticated.

Even though there are many works that seem like Lucier's style using MAX or other audio software, however, the concepts cannot be compared at the same level. 

It is the same as in the visual arts with using the digital editing program and easy to simulate or optimate the style of the artists in the 20th century.

As an artist, what I am be careful is to optimate. As an artist, what I am being careful about is to optimate in my artwork as well as in my writing (concept). Who I know artists, work with computer software, even if the photographer, they program by themselves for developing own computer soft ware. So I used Pure Data, not MAX till 2014. After then, I started to explore the new work with the new artistic approach. It was for me impossible to develop own computer soft ware, that is an art field of new media art today.

The composer Valerio Sannicandro, after his doctoral study, he developed the musical composition of the partiture and to rehearse it with musicians through his specific and highly artistic technique, together with the performance technique and musicians from classical music, which makes profound sense in cognitive linguistics.

Limina (2019) for 6 musicians/Valerio Sannicandro


For example, Chris Dahlgren studied MA music composition under Alvin Lucier at Wesleyan University. "still/silent" 2020 in Dresden, we created a new concept, even if we used the two different sine waves (Oscillators) in a musical performance, would not be compared with Lucier's work.

So, it comes out something new.

-> What is "liberal arts"?

-> I thought that I had to go back to the Renaissance once to describe them visually because the Western musical notation originates in Renaissance. However, our today's mathematical understanding of nature is deeper than in Renaissance.

One of the music composers in post-war who understood the sculpture in visual arts was John Cage. Who taught him and exchanged with him the visual arts, I think that one was Duchamp.

Simply compressing your/my intellect is not minimalism, it requires "to solve" logically in regards with other disciplines.

In 2020, it is possible algorithmically, without intentions between persons.

Science has yet to explain how the brain gives rise to the mind.:

Science has allowed us to understand many physical aspects of the universe extraordinarily well, from the large-scale structure of the cosmos to the microscopic processes of chemistry and biology. Yet nowhere in these fields of knowledge is there any description of how consciousness arises.
There are some philosophers who reject the notion that consciousness depends on physics at all, often using the zombie argument, which states that we can imagine a world that is fully compatible with the laws of nature and in which consciousness is absent.
Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz discussed the difficulty of solving this problem in his 1714 work La Monadologie. He argued that if we could enlarge a brain and inspect it, we “will only find parts that push one another, and we will never find anything to explain a perception.”
Today this is known as the hard problem of consciousness, a term introduced by philosopher David Chalmers. It refers to the problem of explaining how and why the physical processes of the brain result in subjective conscious experiences.

The term “hard problem of consciousness” was coined by philosopher and cognitive scientist David Chalmers in his 1995 paper Facing Up to the Problem of Consciousness. In it he first describes the easy problem: finding neurological bases for mental phenomena like focusing attention, behavioral control, and integrating information. The hard problem, in contrast, asks why subjective experiences rise out of the brain’s informational processing systems. As Dr. Chalmers wrote, “Why should physical processing give rise to a rich inner life?”

(The lecture "The Biology of Consciousness" with Christof Koch | Neuroscientist | Chief Scientist, MindScope Program, Allen Institute for Brain Science)


So, Something comes out new in performing arts and systemised in the workspace in performing arts.

- Performance (Improvisation) Sans Plus by Erika Matsunami and Chris Dahlgren: The resonance was because of this space,  performance was not with extra sound effect. 

It was the deal between me and Chris Dahlgren if he will be able to play with me under the low level of the musical condition (no the level of the stage) as musical expression. It was a performance in the "temporary" site-specific installation. Thereby live erlectronics was multi-ch mono-discrete diffusion, played by Erika Matsunami, as well as in some parts was by Chris Dahlgren. I dealt with the resonance in this room. The accustioc sound with Gamba by Chris Dahlgren wihtout Microphone for the diffusion.

The improvisation rule was a similar idea to "Zufall composition" by Fluxus.
We prepared five elements as five cards (1–5), before the start of the improvisation, we drew cards with each other. For example, the result was, my side is 5, 3, 1, 4, 2.

Chris's side is 1, 3, 4, 5, 2. We didn't know the content of each element. The performance was for 60 minutes improvisation, in the program, this evening was our solo show.

We had only sound and technical check, before the peformance (improivisation). As musican, Chris Dahlgren, he is fantastic for me like a dancer of Pina Bausch. 

Artistic approach from the aspects of architecture, music composition, visual arts, and performance.

Transdisciplinary artistic research

The festival includes an exhibition was in the context of Polish Avant-Garde.

The contradiction between the two types of artistic researches: Sophisticated means, especially with the using technology in a space (room).

It depends on the concept of an artist in the context.

In the context of the philosophy of language in which is not the context of the philosophy of art.:

Artistic approach from the aspect of music compostion and music performance

Artistic research in Music compostion and Music performance

In this performance, a musician is a "sound source" in a room (in a music compositional sound system design by a composer.).

-> Whether with score or improvisation, there is the aim and his/her responsibility of the composer (musician as a composer) for a whole piece. A plot of "as you like."

-> I conceptualized this performance for space, where the acoustic environment is particularly bad as the "body of an instrument (instrument körper)" as a simple interaction swith pace. There is no sound expansion by the microphone. 

The human brain contains an average of 86 billion neurons, most of which are found in the cerebellum. Perhaps surprisingly, humans do not have the most neurons of any living species. Elephants, for instance, have about three times as many neurons in their brains as humans.

Even if a person has the state of unconsciousness, his/her brain is active, I mean that is not death.

I think the problem with the definition of brain death is that it is not clear that the brain is dead. Such as in the case of impossible to determine "death" when the person is "unconscious", breathing continues, and cells are actively moving. – Study of unconsciousness in neuroscience.

One of the social issues is who has the right to make a "hold breathing" decision in this ultimate state. 

In the future, it may be possible for the medical computer-system to read the code and pathes of this "unconscious" brain state informationally. However, for that person, there is no morning and night, no north and south.

Integrated Information theory of Consciousness is developed by Giulio Tononi of the University of Wisconsin-Madison in 2004.

The US launched the Human Connectome Project to map the human brain, in order to better understand the neural pathways that underlie brain function and behavior. The goal of the project is to create a "connectome", or a comprehensive map of neural connections within the human brian in 2009.

Detecting consciousness:

A Belgian research team announced that they could distinguish between wakeful consciousness and unconsciousness in 2012. By pulsing the subjects' brains with electromagnetic stimulation and then measuring the brains' responses using EEG, the scientists found that they could identify states of consciousness with never-before achieved levels of accuracy.

Conscious Infants:

Researchers in Paris and Denmark found in 2013 that infants can have conscious experiences as young as 5 months old. Using EEG recordings, the scientists found that when the babies were very briefly shown images of human faces, they showed the same pattern of brain activity as adults that consciously see the faces. The biggest difference was the quickness of the mental reaction: the babies' brains responded about 1 second slower than adults.

Network Theory of Consciousness in 2015:

Researchers at Vanderbilt University found evidence that consciousness results from widespread communication across sensory and association areas of the cortex — challenging the idea that restricted brain areas are responsible for conscious experience. The study used fMRI to observe the brains of 24 subjects as they were shown visual stimuli that they were either conscious of or not. They found higher levels of interconnectedness among brain regions during trials when subjects were conscious of the stimulus.

Cortical Integration and Consciousness 2016:

A study by researchers at the University of Winsconsin used fMRI to monitor subjects' brains as they went from consciousness to anesthetically-induced unconsciousness. They found that during consciousness, multiple different brain networks were active and connected, while unconsciousness brought decreased activity and connectivity. This suggests that an optimal level of neuronal connectivity is critical to conscious experience.

As artistic research, there was a research problem in variation I, that is the research context, and research method, which was unsure. But the quality of research aims at the artistic techniques in "performance", which we can not feel each other online. Online, we can work "meta-code", mostly work is "writing" (encode) and "reading" (decode). We need high quarity of "meta-code".


In variation II, I conceived for virtual research with Valerio Sannicandro, particularly for nonverbal handwriting encode and decode through metaphor in arts.


Visual arts and Composition, artists study nonverbal handwriting encode and decode through metaphor in arts more than 10 years long. This level of exchange is for us "aesthetic intervention".


Tolerant Paternalism: Pro-ethical Designas a Resolution of the Dilemma of Toleration
Luciano Floridi
Received: 9 July 2015/Accepted: 22 October 2015
©Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2015

 Toleration is one of the fundamental principles that inform the design of a democratic and liberal society. Unfortunately, its adoption seems inconsistent withthe adoption of paternalistically benevolent policies, which represent a valuablemechanism to improve individuals’ well-being. In this paper, I refer to this tensionas the dilemma of toleration. The dilemma is not new. It arises when an agent Awould like to be tolerant and respectful towards another agent B’s choices but, at thesame time, A is altruistically concerned that a particular course of action wouldharm, or at least not improve, B’s well-being, so A would also like to be helpful andseeks to ensure that B does not pursue such course of action, for B’s sake and evenagainst B’s consent. In the article, I clarify the specific nature of the dilemma andshow that several forms of paternalism, including those based on ethics by design
and structural nudging, may not be suitable to resolve it. I then argue that one form of paternalism, based on pro-ethical design, can be compatible with toleration andhence with the respect for B’s choices, by operating only at the informational andnot at the structural level of a choice architecture. This provides a successful resolution of the dilemma, showing that tolerant paternalism is not an oxymoron but aviable approach to the design of a democratic and liberal society.

 Ethics by design · Liberalism · Nudging · Paternalism · Toleration ·Value-sensitive design


 -> My question is "Who thinks and considers our (humans individual) capacity"?


I think that art criticism is one of the ways towards culture and politics, not only on the artwork centrally. Due to infinity in Idealism, it belogs to ego of human. I mean that question for "Happiness" of Humans, of course in ego of humans. Anthropocentrism is natural, because on Earth, only humans "think" about primates, thereby important is how humans think, in other words, whether humans know about nature, and about what reality means, and how humans communicate.