This research is not the measurement of madness, but rather on human time perception. We can know about it from the medical side objectivity. Because of the private.

My mother's friend, she had the problem with husband. He dealt with her, as if she has mental illness, and aggressive to her. And she started to believe him, that she had the mental illness. She went to the neurology, and she had no any illness. It is a problem in modern society that relationships and the environment cause human illness. The sense of precise and stoic make us probably stress(ful).

I think that the perspective of this paper applies for everyone in the medical aspect of the 21st century.

Often, I feel that artist has self-stress by her/his produce of the artwork, more than audience, such as frustration of in contemporary art.

So, I work phenomenologically, even if I work with the digital art mediums.

Schilder expressed about human time perception.


Time Processing and Time perception

<UN>©Deana B. Davalos & Jamie Opper, 2015 | doi 10.1163/9789004230699_005This is an open access chapter distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial 3.0 Unported (CC-BY-NC 3.0) License.*Colorado State University, USA.

chapter 4

Time Processing in Schizophrenia

Deana B. Davalos* and Jamie Opper*


Time is inside as well as outside of ourselves. Time is a perception. It is part of the outside world, but it is also a sensation immediately experienced in ourselves. We organize and crystalize the perception of time into the connotation of a continuous flowing time, which we measure by clocks, and we try to apply the same measures to the time experience in ourselves, to what we may call time sensation.... Time is an inherent part of the world of perception, outside and inside the body. (Schilder, 1936)

1.   Introduction

Schilder (1936) described his conception of time in his paper, Psychopathology of Time, which addressed time perception and the idea that various types of psychopathology involved a disturbance in time perception. Schilder wrote the paper while at Bellevue Psychiatric Hospital and detailed a variety of disor-ders and the possible temporal distortion associated with each type of pathology. About schizophrenia, he quotes a patient who says, “I can’t orient myself in the world – I am not clear anymore...I continue to live in eternity. There is no hour, no noon, no night.... Time does not move. I am wavering between past and future.” Schilder’s observations of timing dysfunction in his schizophrenic patients led him to ask, “...why does the schizophrenic give up his time experience? What does time mean for him?” The questions regarding time perception and the role timing plays in schizophrenia continue to perplex researchers today. Our understanding of time processing in schizophrenia has developed over the years from a once rather simplistic view of temporal dysfunction to an elaborate organization of temporal deficits that span from simple sensory measures of timing to higher order processes. And while it has been argued for decades that time processing is disrupted in schizophrenia, the breadth of the implications stemming from those temporal deficits have grown to include areas of clinical symptomatology, social and emotional processing, language, to higher order cognitive processes.

   Conceptually, our capacity to process time is viewed as an ability that plays a critical role in our perception of the world around us. Navon (1978) wrote that our perception of the world consists of a hierarchy of dimensions and that time is at the top of that hierarchy. The ability to process time has been associated with relatively basic tasks such as planning and sequencing and processing basic sensory input to higher order processes that are involved in athletic ability, driving, language, walking, and musical ability (Eagleman et al., 2005; Eagleman, 2009; Ferrandez et al., 2003; Macar et al., 2006; Mangels et al., 1998; Tracy et al., 1998). Given the widespread collection of behaviors, actions, and cognitive processes that appear to be influenced by timing, investigators have begun to speculate whether deficits in information processing and higher level cognitive processing that have been associated with dysexecutive syndrome, and schizophrenia specifically, may be in part due to temporal dysfunction (Macar and Vidal, 2009; Volz et al., 2001). And while time processing may not have a place in the scientific literature as extensive as other cognitive processes, such as attention, working memory, or inhibition, there are indicators that suggest that the magnitude of the importance of intact temporal processing is beginning to be understood. First, Head and colleagues (2008) have recently included time processing as one of the few possible “cognitive primitives” or what is described as basic neuropsychological processess that have broad influence on other cognitive functions, but cannot be separated into component processes themselves (Salthouse, 1985; Verhaeghen and Salthouse, 1997; Zacks and Hasher, 1994). While Head et al. have introduced the idea that time perception has a place in the hierarchy of cognitive processes alongside what have been viewed as fundamental cognitive capacities, such as inhibition and processing speed, there have been relatively few studies that can be used to support the argument. Cognitive primitives cannot, by definition, be separated into component processes and many of the current studies assessing time processing highlight the complexity of measuring temporal processing as most timing tasks generally involve some degree of attentional resources, decision making, and vigilance. Head’s proposal, nonetheless, highlights the fact that timing is now considered as being a foundational cognitive process that may be involved in widespread dysfunction. The idea that temporal processing may lead to some type of dysfunction highlights the second indicator that stresses the magnitude of the importance of intact time processing.

   The scientific literature is rich with studies assessing clinical populations and how time processing may be at the root of clinical symptomatology and deficits associated with various disorders. While it is beyond the scope of this chapter to address all of the types of psychopathology associated with temporal processing, included in the list of clinical disorders and/or clinical features (...)

Everybody have* the potentiality of losing the time perception. (A starting point of critical theories, which direction is not for idealism, but rather to the thesis of Michel Foucault.)

*"Everybody has" is grammatically correct, "Everybody have" is the first and second person singular number and plural and third person plural number.

In addition to the interactive virtual game (even between humans) to me, it is indeed the same experience of the mental "violence" level, which experience with the film is the same. Personally, I'm not sure, that's an experience, if it is needed for us. I have the right as a human to reject it, so I don't need against these artistic expressions, consequenslly, the question is "how I reject it.". 

The important is directly or not directly, not be forced, and also not force others by the technology.

-> It is the medical doctor who knows the individual, and the patient who consults with the medical doctor. The medical doctors consider the ethical point of view. If they do not consider the ethical point of view, they are not a medical doctor.

In this context, the scientific literature is profound and deep.


I deal with the medical ethics of space, time and body musically. It is my task currently.


I am referring (argue) to the topic of knowledge for machine based education, such as space, time and body of virtual reality.

Study of Biology, Neuroscience, Physics, Mathematics, Aesthetics (since 2015 have been studing online/künstlerische Fortbildung für Professionälle Künstler*in):

in 2020,

How Does the Body Use DNA as a Blueprint?

University of Aberdeen (With the test and the certificate)

and other courses in science (neuroscience, medicine, and others)


in 2021

Genomic Technologies in Clinical Diagnostics: Molecular Techniques,

Molecular Techniques, Genomic Technologies in Clinical Diagnostics: Next Generation SequencingSt George's, University of London

Whole Genome Sequencing, Health Education England

Study of medical ethics in regards to arts and ethics.


-> What I studied, DNA Sequencing (Procedure of Decoding, Transformed meta code of DNA as DNA sequence) and different types of DNA Sequencing and its phenomenon (Reading), as well as time and space logically.

I think that the conventional research of genetic modification will end. Because of the medical law, medical ethics and philosophy of science, that apply in the society.

Until now, medicine was not involved as a treatment, but it is realized as a medical system today. 

DNA research was developed from modernism together with imperialism highly. The French philosopher Gilles Deleuze, he in his thesis, suggested the failure in molecular biology, such as in Platonism.

Today, together with the study in medicine, it would be clarify, we human, there is no ideal body, ideal condition, everybody has "error" in each body. What is error? would be studied.


-> For the argumentation, I need to have an object or a case, that is a case study such as in medicine (neuroscience and cognitive neuroscience).

“Aesthetic attention beyond the object” (in a sense, "beyond the subject")



In her contribution Specular Space, Mac Cumhaill argues that the “empty space” of a depicted object is not physical empty space but rather it is a mental “empty space” of specular experience through superficial phenomenon. It can be explained in today’s cognitive neuroscience and cognitive psychology. With two-dimensional images on the Internet, we see the image on the screen. In fact, this surface is an empty space, the sound overlaps the images that directly give us the attention, which is simulated as if “awareness” that calls the futuristic "impact" of things or events. In this paper, I explore “aesthetic attention”, particularly from the auditory sense of things and events. Thereby, I question, “How are we paying attention in everyday life?” particularly in non-human and human society. How might our attention be changing in contemporary society and its environment? These questions address to attention as an aesthetic experience in regards to the contribution Specular Space by Mac Cumhaill. (...)




-       Mac Cumhaill, Clare. “Specular Space.” Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society, vol. 111, 2011, pp. 487–495.

-       “Listening to Instruments.” Instruments for New Music: Sound, Technology, and Modernism, by Thomas Patteson, University of California Press, Oakland, California, 2016, pp. 1–17.

-       O' Callaghan, Casey, Beyond Vision: Philosophical Essays, Oxford: OUP, 2017.

-       Schulze Holger, Sonic Fiction, London: Bloomsbury Publishing, 2020.

Time and Free WillAn Essay on the Immediate Data of Consciousness by Henri Bergson

"In Time and Free Will, written as his doctoral thesis, Bergson tries to dispel the arguments against free will. These arguments, he shows, come from a confusion of different ideas of time. Physicists and mathematicians conceive of time as a measurable construct much like the spatial dimensions. But in human experience, life is perceived as a continuous and unmeasurable flow rather than as a succession of marked-off states of consciousness — something that can be measured not quantitatively, but only qualitatively. And because human personalities express themselves in acts that cannot be predicted, Bergson declares free will to be an observable fact."

What is time perception for us Human?

Time is inside as well as outside of ourselves. Time is a perception. It is part of the outside world, but it is also a sensation immediately experienced in ourselves. We organize and crystalize the perception of time into the connotation of a continuous flowing time, which we measure by clocks, and we try to apply the same measures to the time experience in ourselves, to what we may call time sensation.... Time is an inherent part of the world of perception, outside and inside the body. (Schilder, 1936)