Name: Enrico Ruggieri Main Subject: Choral Conducting Research Supervisors: Charles Toet, Ricardo Bernardes Title of Research: The Lamentações para a Semana Santa by José Joaquim dos Santos and Luciano Xavier dos Santos and the music for two violas, voices concertate and low instruments Research Question: What are the main features of the viola in this specific repertoire and consequently, what becomes its main function? Summary of Results: In 18th-century Portugal, a particular instrumental setting was used in the music composed for a specific Roman Catholic rite called the officium tenebrarum, performed during the Holy Week. This particular instrumentation consists of a standard vocal ensemble, 4 voices concertate, accompanied by a group of string instruments: 2 violas, a cello (or 2 celli) and a double bass. José Joquim dos Santos and Luciano Xavier dos Santos are the composers who exploited this instrumentation best, covering all the needs for music in the Officium tenebrarum. An analysis of two Lamentations by José Joaquim dos Santos and Luciano Xavier dos Santos explores the relation between music and rhetorical tools and how the viola relates to them. Besides being a precious rhetorical tool itself, the analysis discloses that the violas and the low string instruments become a practical replacement for the harmonic instruments. In a liturgy where the organ was officially forbidden there is a need for an instrument or several instruments that could absolve that crucial function. Thanks to his ability in blending with and supporting the voices and, at the same time, respecting the solemnity and the sobriety of the liturgy, the viola became the best organ replacement. Biography: Enrico Ruggieri was born in 1982, graduated in piano, studying with Paolo Russo and Rachele Marchegiani. After a Bachelor in Architecture, there followed a Bachelor degree in Choir Conducting from Pescara Conservatory, a Master degree in Choral Music and Choir Conducting in Bologna Conservatory and a Bachelor degree in Choral Conducting from the Royal Conservatoire, The Hague. He has attended masterclasses with many different musicians specialising in choral conducting and Early Music, such as: Tonu Kalijuste, Peter Phillips, David Lawrence, Julian Wilkins, Walter Marzilli, Marco Berrini, Annibale Cetrangolo, Maurizio Less, and vocal technique with: Ghislaine Morgan, Sandro Naglia, Elisa Turlà (Voicecraft), Federica Fedele (Alexander Technique). He has conducted many amateur choirs with varied repertoire: church music, folk music, early music, mixed choral repertoire. Presently, he is conducting “Lassus Consort” an Early Music vocal ensemble in Amsterdam and the “Quod Libet Kamerkoor” in The Hague.
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