Ackermann, B., Driscoll, T., & Kenny, D. (2012). Musculoskeletal pain and injury in professional orchestral musicians in Australia. Medical problems of performing artists, 27(4), 181–187. 

Adams, J.A. (1971). A closed-loop theory of motor learning. Journal of Motor Behavior, 3,111–150.

Adolphe, B. (2013). The mind’s ear. Exercises for improving the musical imagination for performers, composers, and listeners. New York: Oxford University Press.

Altenmüller, E. (2008). Neurology of musical performance. Medicine, Music and the Mind, 8, 410–413.

Altenmüller, E. (2012). Acquisition and loss of skilled movements in musicians. In A. Mornell (Ed.), Art in Motion II (pp. 105–113). Frankfurt am Main: Peter Lang.

Altenmüller, E., & Gruhn, W. (2002). Brain mechanisms. In R. Parncutt & G. McPherson (Eds.), The Science and Psychology of Music Performance, 63–81.

Altenmüller, E. (2006). Hirnphysiologische Grundlagen der Übens. In U. Mahlert (Ed.), Handbuch Üben, 47–66. Mainz: Schott.

Altenmüller, E., & Schneider, S. (2008). Planning and performance. Oxford Handbook of Music Psychology. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Atkins, R. L. (2017). Effects of focus of attention on tone production in trained singers. Journal of Research in Music Education, 64, 421–434.

Atkins, R. L., & Duke, R. A. (2013). Changes in tone production as a function of focus of attention in untrained singers. International Journal of Research in Choral Singing, 4, 28–36.

Araújo, M. V. (2016). Measuring self-regulated practice behaviours in highly skilled musicians. Psychology of Music, 44(2), 278–292.

Bach, C.P.E. (1753/1949). Essay on the true art of playing keyboard instruments. (W. J. Mitchell, Trans.) New York: W.W. Norton. 

Bakker, F.C., Kouwenhoven, J., Schuijer, M., & Oudejans, R.R.D. (2016). The Study Lab Project: An evidence-based approach in preparing students for a public recital. Piano Bulletin, 34, 92-99. 

Bandura, A. (1997). Self-efficacy: The exercise of control. New York: Freeman.

Baumeister, R.F. (1984). Chocking under pressure: Self-consciousness and paradoxical effects of incentives on skilful performance. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 46, 610–620.

Baumeister, R. F., Bratslavsky, E., Muraven, M., & Tice, D. M. (1998). Ego depletion: is the active self a limited resource? Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 74(5), 1252–1265.

Bliss, C.B. (1895). Investigations in reaction time and attention. Studies from the Yale Psychological Laboratory, 1892-1893, 1, 1–55.

Boder, D.P. (1935). The influence of concomitant activity and fatigue upon certain forms of reciprocal hand movement and its fundamental components. Comparative Psychology Monographs, 11(4).

Bonneville-Roussy, A., & Bouffard, T. (2015). When quantity is not enough: Disentangling the roles of practice time, self-regulation and deliberate practice in musical achievement. Psychology of Music, 43(5), 686–704.

Borkovec, T.D. (1976). Physiological and cognitive processes in the regulation of anxiety. In g. E. Schwarz and D. Shapiro (Eds.), Consciousness and self-regulation: advances in research I. New York: Plenum Press.

Briggs, G. (2017). From Maybin, S. Busting the attention span myth. BBC World Service. 10 March 2017. Accessed  October 2. 2017.

Buma, A., Bakker, F., & Oudejans, R. (2014). Exploring the thoughts and focus of attention of elite musicians. Psychology of Music 201543(4), 459–472.

Carey, G. M., Bridgstock, R., Taylor, P., McWilliam, E. & Grant, C. (2013). Characterising one-to-one conservatoire teaching: some implications of a quantitative analysis. Music Education Research, 15(3), 357–368.

Chaffin, R. (2011). Thinking about performance: Memory, attention, and practice International Symposium on Performance Science. Published by the AEC.

Chaffin, R. & Lemieux, A.F. (2004). General perspectives on achieving musical excellence. In A. Williamon (Ed.), Musical excellence: Strategies and techniques to enhance performance, 19–40. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Clark, T., & Williamon, A. (2011). Evaluation of a mental skills training program for musicians. Journal of Applied Sports Psychology, 23, 342–359.

Connoly, C., & Williamon, A. (2004). Mental skills training. In A. Williamon (Ed.), Musical excellence: Strategies and techniques to enhance performance, 221–245. Oxford, United Kingdom: Oxford University Press.

Csikszentmihalyi, M. (1996). Creativity: Flow and the psychology of discovery and invention. New York: Harper Collins.

Davidson-Kelly, K., Moran, N., Schaefer, R.S., & Overy, K. (2015). “Total Inner Memory”: Deliberate uses of multimodal musical imagery during performance preparation. Psychomusicology: Music, Mind and Brain, 25(1), 83–92.

Dweck, C. (2000). Self-theories: Their role in motivation, personality, and development (Essays in social psychology). Philadelphia: Psychology Press.

Dweck, C. (2008). Mindset: The new psychology of success. New York: Ballantine Books.

Duke, R., Cash, C. & Allen, S. (2011). Focus of attention affects performance of motor skills in music. Journal of Research in Music Education, 59(1), 44–55.

Donnolly, C.M., & McDaniel, M.A. (1993). Use of analogies in learning scientific concepts. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 19, 975–987.

Ericsson, K.A. (1996). The acquisition of expert performance: An introduction to some of the issues. In Ericsson, A (Ed.), The road to excellence: The acquisition of expert performance in the arts and sciences, sports and games, 1–50. Mahwah, New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Ericsson, K.A. (2008). Deliberate practice and acquisition of expert performance: a general overview. Academic Emergency Medicine,15(11), 988–994.

Fitts, P.M., & Posner, M.I. (1967). Human performance. Belmont, CA: Brooks/Cole.

Frick, U. (2011). An Introduction to qualitative research. London: Sage.

Gallwey, T. (1974). The inner game of tennis.New York: Bantam Books.

Gentile, A.M. (1972). A working model of skill acquisition with application to teaching. Quest Monograph XVII, 3–23.

Green, B., & Gallwey, T. (1987). The inner game of music. London: Pan Books.

Gordon, E. (2001). Preparatory audiation, audiation, and music learning theory. Chicago, USA: GIA Publications. 

Golomb, U. (2008). Keys to the performance of baroque music. Goldberg Early Music Magazine 51, 56–67.

Guss-West, C., & Wulf, G. (2016). Attentional focus in classical ballet: A survey of professional dancers. Journal of Dance Medicine and Science, 20, 23–29.

Harnoncourt, N. (1992/1988). Baroque music today: Music as speech.(M. O’Niel, Trans.). Portland, Oregon: Amadeus Press.

Henry, F.M. & Rogers, D.E. (1960). Increased response latency for complicated movements and a ‘memory drum’ theory of neuromotor reaction. Research Quarterly, 31, 448–458.

Hattie, J., & Yates, G. (2014). Visible learning and the science of how we learn. New York: Routledge.

Haynes, B., & Burgess, G. (2016). The pathetick musician: Moving an audience in the age of eloquence. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Holmes, P. (2005). Imagination in practice: A study of the integrated roles of interpretation, imagery and technique in the learning and memorisation processes of two experienced solo performers. British Journal of Music Education, 22(3), 217–235.

Hommel, B., Brown,S & Nattkemper, D. (2016). Human action control: From intentions to movements. Switzerland: Springer. 

James, W. (1890). The Principles of Psychology. New York: Dover Publications.

Jørgensen, H. (2009). Research into higher music education: An overview from a quality improvement perspective.Oslo: Novus Press.

Juslin, P.N. (2001). Communicating emotion in music performance. A review and a theoretical framework. In P.N. Juslin & J.A. Sloboda (Eds.), Music and Emotion: Theory and research, 309–337. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Juslin, P.N., & Persson, R.S. (2002). Emotional communication. In R. Parncutt & G. McPherson (Eds.), The science and psychology of music performance: Creative  strategies for teaching and learning, 2019–236. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Juslin, P., & Sloboda, J. (Ed.) (2010). Handbook of Music and Emotion: Theory, Research, Applications. Oxford University Press.

Keller, P. (2012). Mental imagery in music performance: underlying mechanisms and potential benefits. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences ISSN 0077-8923.

Kelso, J.A.S., & Schöner, G. (1988). Self-organisation of coordinative movement patterns. Human Movement Science, 7, 27–46.

Kenny, D.T. (2011). The psychology of music performance anxiety. Oxford University Press.

Kruse-Weber, S. & Marin, C. (2016). Developing an explicit approach to error management in instrumental music education. Arts and Humanities in Higher Education. Special digital issue.

Kruse-Weber, S & Parncutt, R. (2014). Error management for musicians: an interdisciplinary framework. Frontiers in Psychology 5:777.

Van Ketel, J. (2017). The art of application. A thesis in cognitive psychology on professional musical practice behaviour. Unpublished masters thesis, Leiden University.

Kleynen, M., Braun, S., Rasquin, S., Bleijlevens, M., Lexis, M., Halfens, J., Wilson, M., Masters, R., & Beurskens, A. (2005). Multidisciplinary views on applying explicit and implicit motor learning in practice: An international survey. PLoS One10(8): e0135522.

Koedijker, J.M., Oudejans, R.R.D & Beek, P.J. (2011). Attention and time constraints in perceptual-motor performance: Instruction, analogy and skill level. Consciousness & Cognition, 20, 245–256.

Liao, C.M., & Masters, R.S.W. (2001). Analogy learning: A means to implicit motor learning. Journal of Sports Sciences,19, 307–319. 

Lohse, K., & Sherwood, D.E. (2011). Defining the focus of attention: effects of attention on perceived exertion and fatigue.Frontiers in Psychology, 2(332), 1–10.

McPherson, G & McCormick, J. (2006). Self-efficacy and music performance. Psychology of Music, 34(3), 325–339.

MacMahon, K.M.A. & Masters, R.S.W. (2002). The effects of secondary tasks on implicit motor skill performance. International Journal of Sport Psychology, 33, 307–324.

Masters, R. S.W. (1992). Knowledge, nerves and know-how: The role of explicit versus implicit knowledge in the breakdown of a complex motor skill under pressure. British Journal of Psychology83, 343–358. 

Masters, R.S.W. (2012). Conscious and unconscious awareness in learning and performance. In S.M. Murphy (Ed.), The Oxford handbook of Sport and Performance Psychology. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Masters, R.S.W. (2014). Motor learning (conscious and non-conscious) in sport & other activities. Lecture from Youtube published April 29, 2014. Accessed 24.08.2016.

Masters, R.S.W., & Maxwell, J.P. (2004). Implicit motor learning, reinvestment and movement disruption: What you don’t know won’t hurt you? In A.M. Williams & N.J. Hodges (Eds.), Skill acquisition in sport: Research, theory and practice. London: Routledge.

Masters, R.S.W., & Poolton, J.M. (2012). Advances in implicit motor learning. In N. J. Hodges & A. M. Williams (Eds.), Skill acquisition in sport: Research, theory and practice, 59–75. Oxon, England: Routledge. 

Mattheson, J. (1739/1981). Johann Mattheson’s “Der Vollkommende Capellmeister”: a revised Translation with Critical Commentary (E. C. Harriss, Trans.). Ann Arbor: UMI Research Press. 

Maxwell, J.P., Masters, R.S.W., & Eves, F.F. (2000). From novice to no know-how: A longitudinal study of implicit motor learning. Journal of Sports Science, 18, 111–120.

Maxwell, J.P., Masters, R.S.W., & Eves, F.F. (2009). Marginally perceptible outcome feedback, motor learning and implicit processes. Consciousness & Cognition, 18, 639–645.

Maxwell, J.P., Masters, R.S.W., Kerr, E., & Wheeldon, E. (2001). The implicit benefit of learning without errors. Quarterly journal of Experimental Psychology, 54A, 1049-1068.

McNevin, N.H., Shea, C.H., & Wulf, G. (2003). Increasing the distance of an external focus of attention enhances learning. Psychological Research, 67, 22–27.

McPherson, G., & McCormick, J. (2006). Self-efficacy and music performance. Psychology of Music, 34(3), 325–339.

Moritz, S., Feltz, D., Fahrbach, K, & Mack, D. (2000). The relation of self-efficacy measures to sport performance: a meta-analytic review. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 71, 280–294.

Mornell, A. (Ed.) (2009). Art in Motion. Frankfurt am Main: Peter Lang.

Mornell, A. (Ed.) (2012). Art in Motion II. Frankfurt am Main: Peter Lang.

Mornell, A. & Wulf, G. (2019). Adopting an external focus of attention enhances musical performance. Journal of Research in Music Education, 66(4), 375–391.

Nelson, B. (2006). Also sprach Arnold Jacobs: A developmental guide for brass wind musicians. Mindelheim: Polymnia Press.

Newel, K.M. (1985). Coordination, control and skill. In D. Goodman, R.B. Wilberg, & I.M. Franks (Eds.), Differing perspectives in motor learning, memory, and control, 295–317. Amsterdam: North Holland.

Newel, K.M. (1991). Motor skill acquisition. Annual Review of Psychology, 42, 213–237.

Newel, K.M. (2003). Schema Theory (1975): Retrospectives and prospectives. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 74, 383–388.

Nideffer, R.M. (1976). The Inner Athlete.New York: Thomas Crowell.

Oudejans, R. R. D., Spitse, A., Kralt, E., & Bakker, F. (2016). Exploring the thoughts and attentional focus of music students under pressure. Psychology of Music 2017. 45(2), 216–230.

Parncutt, R., & McPherson, G.E. (Eds.) (2002). The science and psychology of music performance: Creative strategies for teaching and learning, Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Pascua, L., Wulf, G., & Lewethwaite, R. (2015). Additive benefits of external focus and enhanced performance expectancy for motor learning. Journal of Sports Sciences, 33(1), 58–66.

Perkins-Ceccato, N., Passmore, S.R., & Lee, T.D. (2003). Effects of focus of attention depend on golfers’ skill. Journal of sport sciences, 21, 593–600.

Poolton, J.M., Masters, R.S.W., & Maxwell, J. (2005). The relationship between initial errorless learning conditions and subsequent performance. In B. H. Kantowitz (Ed.), Human information processing: Tutorials in performance and cognition. New York: Erlbaum.

Poolton, M., Maxwell, J., Masters, R.S.W., & Raab, M. (2007). Benefits of an external focus of attention: Common coding or conscious processing? Journal of Sports Sciences, 24(1), 89–99.

Quantz, J.J. (1752/1985). On playing the flute (E.R. Reilly, Trans.) London: Faber and Faber.

Reason, J., & Mycielska, K. (1982). Absent-minded? The psychology of mental lapses and everyday errors. Engelwood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.

Reber, A.S. (1989). Implicit learning and tacit knowledge. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 118(3), 219-235.

Reber, (1992). The cognitive unconscious: An evolutionary perspective. Consciousness and Cognition I293–133.

Riemann, H. (1895). Unsere Konservatorien. In H. Riemann, Präludien und Studien. Gesammelte Aufsätze zur Ästhetik, Theorie und Geschichte der Musik, I Band (pp. 22-33). Frankfurt a. M.: Bechhold.

Ritchie, L. & Williamon, A. (2010). Measuring distinct types of musical self-efficacy. Psychology of Music, 39(3), 328–344. 

Ripa, C. (1603). Overo Descrittione Di Diverse Imagini cauate dall’antichità, & di Propria inuentione. Rome.

Risko E.F., Anderson N., Sarwal A., Engelhardt M., Kingstone A. (2012). Everyday attention: variation in mind wandering and memory in a lectureApplied Cognitive Psychology, 26, 234–242.

Schaefer R.S. (2014). Mental representations in musical processing and their role in action-perception loops, Empirical Musicology Review, 9(3-4), 161–176.

Schaefer R.S. (2017). Music in the brain: Imagery and memory. In: Ashley R., Timmers R. (Eds.) The Routledge Companion to Music Cognition (pp. 25–35). New York: Taylor & Francis.

Schneider, W. & Schiffrin, R.M. (1977). Controlled and automated human information processing: Detection, search and attention. Psychological Review, 44, 627–644.

Schmidt, R. (1975). A Schema theory of discrete motor skill learning. Psychological Review, 82(4), 225–260.

Schmidt, R. (2003). Motor schema theory after 27 years: Reflections and implications for a new theory. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 74(4), 366–375.

Schmidt, R., & Lee, T. (2005). Motor control and learning: A behavioral emphasis. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.

Schmidt, R., & Lee, T. (2012). Principles of practice for learning motor skills: Some implications for practice and instruction in music. In A. Mornell (Ed.), Art in Motion II (pp. 17–51). Frankfurt am Main: Peter Lang.

Schmidt, R., & Wrisberg, C. (2008). Motor learning and performance: A situation-based learning approach. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.

Schlapkohl, N., and Raab, M. (2016). Importance of instructions in sport and exercise psychology. In M. Raab, P. Wylleman, R. Seiler, A-M. Elbe, A. Hatzigeorgiadis (Eds.), Sport and Exercise Psychology Research: from Theory to Practice, Ch. 2.

Singer, R.N. (1988). Strategies and metastrategies in learning and performing self-paced athletic skills. The Sport Psychologist, 2, 49-68.

Singer, R.N., Lidor, R., & Cauraugh, J.H. (1993). To be aware or not aware? What to think about while learning and performing a motor skill. The Sport Psychologist, 7, 19–30.

Smilde, R. (2009). Musicians as lifelong learners. Delft: Eburon.

Squire, L., & Kandel, E. (2009). Memory: From mind to molecules. Singapore: Roberts and Company.

Sweller, J.A., van Merrienboer, J.J.G., & Paas, F.G.W.C. (1996). Cognitive architecture and instructional design. Educational Psychological Review, 10(3), 251-296. 

Trusheim, W. (1991). Audiation and Mental Imagery: Implications for Artistic Performance. The Quarterly2(1–2), 138–147.

Van Gog, T., Ericsson, K.A., Rikers, R.M., & Paas, F. (2005). Instructional design for advanced learners: Establishing connections between the theoretical frameworks of cognitive load and deliberate practice. Educational Technology Research and Development, 53(3), 73–81.

Wegner, D.M. (1994). Ironic processes of mental control. Psychological Review, 101(1), 34–52.

Weinberg, R.S., & Hunt,V.V. (1976). The relationship between anxiety, motor performance, and electromyography. Journal of Motor Behavior, 8, 219–224.

Williamon, A. (Ed.). (2004). Musical excellence: Strategies and techniques to enhance performance. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Williams, S. (2014). Guidelines for performers and teachers. In M.V.d.Bergen, H. Borgdorff, W. Karsten, M. Prchal, & S. Williams (Eds.), From Potential to Performance (pp. 8–20). The Hague: Royal Conservatoire Publications.

Wrisberg, C.A. (1994). The arousal-performance relationship. Quest, 46, 60–77.

Wulf, G. (2007). Attention and motor skill learning. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.

Wulf, G. (2013). Attentional focus and motor learning: a review of 15 years. International review of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 6(1),77–104.

Wulf, G., Höß, M., & Prinz, W. (1998). Instructions for motor learning: Differential effects of internal versus external focus of attention. Journal of Motor Behavior, 30, 169–179.

Wulf, G., & Lewthwaite, R. (2009). Attentional and motivational influences on motor performance and learning. In Mornell (Ed.), Art in Motion (pp. 95–117). Frankfurt am Main: Peter Lang.

Wulf, G., McNevin, N.H. & Shea, C.H. (2001). The automaticity of complex motor skill learning as a function of attentional focus. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 54A, 1143–1154.

Wulf, G., & Mornell, A. (2008). Insights about practice from the perspective of motor learning: a review. Music Performance Research, 2, 1–25.

Wulf, G., & Lewthwaite, R. (2016). Optimizing performance through intrinsic motivation and attention for learning: The OPTIMAL theory of motor learning. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review. Doi: 10.3758/s13423-015-0999-9.

Wulf, G., & McNevin, N.H. (2003). Simply distracting learners is not enough: more evidence for the learning benefits of an external focus of attention. European Journal of Sport Science, 3(5), 1–3.

Zhu, F., Poolton, J., & Masters, R.S.W. (2012). Neuroscientific aspects of implicit motor learning in sport. In A. Gollhofer, W. Taube, & J.B. Nielsen (Eds.), Routledge Handbook of Motor Control and Motor Learning (pp. 155–174). Oxon, England: Routledge.

Van Zijl, A.G.W., & Luck, G. (2013). Thoughts in concert: A multi-method approach to investigate the effect of performers’ focus of attention. International Symposium on Performance Science,665-670. AEC.


Van Zijl, A.G.W. (2014). Performers’ Emotions in Expressive Performance: Sound, Movement, and Perception.Doctoral dissertation, Jyväskylä Studies in Humanities, 222, Jyväskylä University, Finland. 

Zimmerman, B.J. (1998). Academic studying and the development of personal skill: A self-regulatory perspective. Educational Psychologist, 33(2–3),73–86.