In the second group, we find instruments such as rattles (chicahuatzli, like a rain stick), and rasps (omichicahuatzli).
Among the wind instruments — probably a later group, given the complexity of the thought behind the operation of these instruments — we find trumpets, which could be large shells (atecocoli), pumpkins emptied or pieces of wood machined and drilled at the ends and flutes, mainly in bone, clay (tlapitsali20) or cane (antara or siku21, quenaquena22).
With the arrival of the Spanish, the indigenous "instrumentarium" will expand with the adoption of instruments imported from the old world (especially those with strings, plucked and bowed) and, later, with the construction, on-site, of instruments derived from those of the Spanish (remember for example instruments such as the charango, cavaquinho, cuatro).
Starting with the first expedition of musical instruments by the Catholic Kings in 1497, instruments that were fundamental to music as it was conceived in the Old World were imported from Spain. It is therefore legitimate to speculate that the first instruments imported were harps, guitars and vihuelas and organetti (the four main instruments of the basso continuo in the Iberian peninsula), but also wind instruments such as flutes, chirimias and cornetti. The introduction of stringed instruments into the New World was an incredible novelty given their total absence from the indigenous corpus of instruments.
20 They were clay flutes (more rarely in stone) that could be single but also multiple, able to produce more sounds at the same time. The latter denies the theory of the total absence of harmony within the indigenous music system. Surely the melodies were thought of as monodies, but the sense of harmony (as fullness of sounds, of colour) was certainly there in indigenous populations of Latin America. The construction of this type of instrument, in fact, requires a great deal of knowledge at the acoustic level from the manufacturer, and technical knowledge from the performer. Even today, in the region of Lake Titicaca, there are complexes of tarqas and pincullus.
Samuel Martí, Music before Columbus - Musica Precolombina, 2nd ed. (Mexico D.F.: Ediciones Euroamericanas Klaus Thiele, 1978), p. 85.
21 These are the names used for the instrument that today is known as the Pan flute, an instrument composed of several pipes of different sizes linked together, able to produce different sounds.
22 Still widely used today, with the name of quena, it is a pierced tube barrel and can produce up to seven different sounds.