Adams, R. A., Shipp, S., & Friston, K. (2013). Predictions not commands: active inference in the motor system. Brain Structure and Function, 218(3), 611-643.

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Bangert, M., Peschel, T., Schlaug, G., Rotte, M., Drescher, D., Hinrichs, H., et al. (2006). Shared networks for auditory and motor processing in professional pianists: Evidence from fMRI conjunction. NeuroImage, 30(3), 917-926.

Bishop, R.S. (2002). ‘What Do We Really Know about Mindfulness-based Stress Reduction’, Psychosomatic Medicine 64: 71–84. 

Bishop, S. R., Lau, M., Shapiro, S., Carlson, L., Anderson, N. D., Carmody, J., . . . Devins, G. (2004). Mindfulness: A proposed operational definition. Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice, 11, 230–241. doi:10.1093/clipsy/bph077.

Bonneville-Roussy, A., & Bouffard, T. (2015). When quantity is not enough: Disentangling the roles of practice time, self-regulation and deliberate practice in musical achievement. Psychology of Music, 43(5), 686–704.

Brown, K.W., Ryan, R.M. (2003). The Benefits of Being Present: Mindfulness and Its Role in Psychological Well-Being. In: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. 84(4), S. 822–848, doi:10.1037/0022-3514.84.4.822.

Chang, J. C.-W. (2001). Effects of Meditation on Music Performance Anxiety. EdD Diss., Columbia University. 

Connoly, C., & Williamon, A. (2004). Mental skills training. In A. Williamon (Ed.), Musical excellence: Strategies and techniques to enhance performance,221–245. Oxford, United Kingdom: Oxford University Press.

Davidson-Kelly, K. (2014). "Mental Imagery Rehearsal Strategies for Expert Pianists".PhD diss., University of Edinburgh.

Davidson-Kelly, K., Hong, S., Dhinakaran, J., Sanders, J., Gray, C., van Beek, E., et al. (2011). Middle Frontal Gyrus as a Potential Neural Indicator for Musical Imagery. In A. Williamon, D. Edwards, & L. Bartel, Proceedings of the International Symposium on Performance Science 2011 (pp. 613-617). Utrecht: European Association of Conservatoires (AEC).

Diaz, F.M. (2018). Relationships between meditation, perfectionism, mindfulness, and performance anxiety among collegiate music students. Journal of Research in Music Education Vol. 66(2) (pp. 150-167).

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Jakubowski, K., Stewart, L., Finkel, S., & Müllensiefen, D. (2017). Dissecting an Earworm: Melodic Features and Song Popularity Predict Involuntary Musical Imagery. Psychology of Aesthetics, Creativity, and the Arts, 11(2), 122-135.

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Novembre, G., & Keller, P. (2014). A conceptual review on action-perception coupling in the musicians’ brain: what is it good for? Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 8(603), 1-11.

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Recommended Reading

Adolphe, B. (2013). The mind’s ear. Exercises for improving the musical imagination for performers, composers, and listeners.New York: Oxford University Press.

Bandura, A. (1997). Self-efficacy: The exercise of control.New York: Freeman.

M. V.d.Bergen, H. Borgdorff, W. Karsten, M. Prchal, & S. Williams (Eds.), From Potential to Performance. The Hague: Royal Conservatoire Publications.

Dweck, C. (2008). Mindset: The new psychology of success.New York: Ballantine Books.

Green, B., & Gallwey, T. (1987). The inner game of music. London: Pan Books.

Gallwey, T. (1974). The inner game of tennis. New York: Bantam Books.

Hattie, J., & Yates, G. (2014). Visible learning and the science of how we learn.New York: Routledge.

Karsten, W. (2019). In de Muziek. Over musiceren, studeren en het brein.Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press.

Nelson, B. (2006).Also Sprach Arnold Jacobs: A developmental guide for brass wind musicians. Mindelheim: Polymnia Press.

Ristad, E. (1982). A Soprano on her head. Right-side-up reflections on life and other performances. Real People Press. Moab, Utah.

Werner, K. (1996).Effortless Mastery. Liberating the master musician within. Jamey Aebersold Jazz. New Albany, IN.

Williams, M. & Penman, D. (2011). Mindfulness. A practical guide to finding peace in a frantic world. London, Piatkus.



There is a huge range of apps that offer meditation and relaxation exercises



Bullet Proof Musician

From Potential to Performance: practicing tips for musicians

Courses at the Royal Conservatoire, The Hague:

Quality Practice (Bachelor elective)

Effective Practice (Bachelor elective)

Applied performance Science (Master elective)

Teaching Practicing (Master Education elective)