(Schippers, 2010, p.31)
How can we know and understand where the music is on the continuum?
First let's understand the terminology used.
In the field of education, the term multiculturalism coined by Professor James Banks defines multicultural education as seeking to create equal educational opportunities for all students, including those from different racial, ethnic, and social-class groups (Banks 1997). However, in Europe the preferred term today is intercultural education in order to stress that the aim is equal cooperation and learning between cultures and not just co-existence (Räsänen, 2010). Banks and others, however, sees the terms as interchangeable (Walton & Webster, 2019).
Although these terms can be interchangeable in education, Schippers sees them on a continuum. Monocultural where there is only one frame of reference which is invariably the western culture, and other music and musical approaches are marginalized, multicultural where musicians from different cultures in music stay within their own music, and children of each culture learn the music of that culture, intercultural when there are perhaps motifs rhythms harmonies and improvisations from the other culture and ultimately transcultural which is an in depth exchange and understanding of other music styles. Moreover, Schippers presents a way for us to look at the issues of authenticity by asking:
"does the situation attempt to recreate an original context for the music, or does it see the music as completely recontextualised, and does the situation reflect a tendency towards reconstructing an authentic (in the sense of culturally and/or historically correct) version of the music, or does it work from the view that the music has a new identity in the new context?" (Schippers, 2006, p.348).
This can be seen in the diagram below which looks at three plans, the traditional, the context and the authenticity on a continuum.