Baken, Ronald J. (1987). Clinical Measurement of Speech and Voice. London: Taylor and Francis Ltd.
Bowman, Wayne D. (1998). Philosophical Perspectives on Music. New York: Oxford University Press.
Broner, Nick (1995). “The Effects of Low Frequency Noise on People – A Review.” Amok Journal: Sensurround Edition. Monroe, Oregon: Amok Books, 410-426.
Cusick, Suzanne G. (2006). “Music as Torture/Music as Weapon.” Trans: Revista Transcultural de Música 10.
“Exile on Moan Street.”
Glennie, Evelyn (1993). “Hearing Essay.”
Goodman, Steve (2010). Sonic Warfare: Sound, Affect, and the Ecology of Fear. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press.
Johnson, Bruce and Martin Cloonan (2008). Dark Side of the Tune: Popular Music and Violence. Burlington, VT: Ashgate.
Kahn, Douglas (1999). Noise, Water, Meat: A History of Sound in the Arts. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press.
Kittler, Friedrich A. (1999). Gramophone, Film, Typewriter. (trans. by Geoffrey Winthrop-Young and Michael Wutz). Stanford: Stanford University Press.
Maus, Fred Everett (2004). “The Disciplined Subject of Music Analysis.” In Andrew Dell’Antonio (ed.), Beyond Structural Listening?: Post-Modern Modes of Hearing (pp. 13-43). Berkeley: University of California Press.
Schafer, R. Murray (1977). The Tuning of the World. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, Inc.
Sengpiel, Eberhard. “Loudness Comparison Chart.” In Forum für Mikrophonaufnahmetechnik und Tonstudiotechnik. (Forum for Microphone Recording and Sound Studio Technology.)
Serres, Michel (2008). The Five Senses: A Philosophy of Mingled Bodies (I). (trans. Margaret Sankey and Peter Cowley). New York: Continuum.
Swezey, Stuart (1995). “Anti-Crowd Weapons Work by Causing Fits.” Amok Journal: Sensurround Edition. Monroe, OR: Amok Books, 402-404.
Swezey, Stuart (1995). “Working Paper on Infrasound Weapons.” Amok Journal: Sensurround Edition. Monroe, OR: Amok Books, 405-409.
Truax, Barry (ed.) (1999). “Threshold of Pain.” Handbook for Acoustic Ecology. Cambridge Street Publishing. Retrieved November 8, 2012.
Voegelin, Salomé (2010). Listening to Noise and Silence: Towards a Philosophy of Sound Art. New York: Continuum.
 A version of this paper was presented at the inaugural European Sound Studies Association (ESSA) conference in Berlin, 4-6 October, 2013. I would like to thank the many conference participants who offered insightful questions and comments on this piece. I would also like to particularly thank Ola Stockfelt and Julia Krause for their comments both at the conference and in the further preparation of this manuscript, as well as my anonymous reviewer.
 Sunn O))) is one of the few members of the “drone doom metal”subgenre. The use of “drone”here differs from the standard musical usage of the word to describe an unchanging bass pitch over which other melodies are played. In drone doom metal, the drones are the pitch content of the music and resemble the droning of heavy machinery, with a single fundamental taking on varied timbral shapes over the course of up to a few minutes.
 Adult humans have a hearing range of approximately 20-20,000 Hz. As points of reference, a modern classical orchestra tunes to an “A”at 440 Hz and the range of the human speech is approximately 85-255 Hz (Baken 1987: 177).
 I am using the decibel A-weighted scale, as it is the standard for measuring environmental noise in both common and legal usage. Unfortunately, db(A) says very little about the strength of the sub-bass frequencies. A dB(C) measurement would reveal more of the strength of the low frequencies at a Sunn O))) concert.
 The auditory threshold of pain is approximate and varies somewhat among individuals, depending on age and previous noise exposure. As a point of reference, a vuvuzela at a distance of 1m reaches about 120 dB (“threshold of discomfort”), and a jet engine at 30m is about 140 dB –certainly painful to the unprotected ear (Sengpiel).
 To date, Sunn O))) have released nine studio albums since 2000, some in collaboration with other artists. These releases exhibit the same magnanimously slow approach to musical form, but are mastered to be listenable on average consumer grade audio equipment, and thus lack the intense focus on the sub-bass that characterizes their live performances. Because this essay focuses on the live experience of Sunn O)))’s music, I have chosen not to include any audio, as it is simply not possible to capture the sensations I describe through either standard field recording or playback equipment.
 For a summary of phenomenological methods as applied to musical experience, see (Bowman 1998: 254-301).
 Michel Serres writes of the interconnectivity of the senses, “How could we see the compact capacity of the senses if we separated them?”(Serres 2008: 305) He further asserts, “…it can be said that our whole posture is linked to our sense of hearing”(Serres 2008: 142), as he argues that hearing comes not only through the ears, but also through the feet and the joints.
 Though of course, as R. Murray Schafer points out, noise has been an important component of all wars (Schafer 1977: 50).
 Bruce Johnson and Martin Cloonan also discuss sonic and musical weaponry, particularly as used by the US military (Johnson and Cloonan 2008: 147-154).
 For further discussion on the fluidity between sonic weapon and music, see Goodman 2010: 27-39.
 Masochistic submission to sound can also be explicitly sexual. Johnson and Cloonan describe a London BDSM club in which women are allegedly brought to orgasm by being tied to a large speaker blasting a “magical”frequency of 33 Hz (Johnson and Cloonan 2008: 21-22).
 My experience of Sunn O)))’s performance echoes Salomé Voegelin’s encounters with Merzbow, Otomo Yoshihide and other sound artists who use noise. Of noise, she writes that it “pulls listening down to [her] feet”(Voegelin 2010: 43), and her discussion of Yoshihide in particular describes how the overwhelming sounds produced by the artist assault the entire body and require complete submission of the senses (Voegelin 2010: 48-50).