The nature of light is straight.
It is the same even for a surface of 1cm square meter.


Metamorphosis consists of two lines. On the one hand, it's about the transformation from a real story into narrativity in the meta of the B.O.D.Y. project.
The other is a shift from the context of the topics of time, space and body in the natural sciences (physics) of analogue photography and sound art in art research to the topics of time, space and body in the environment and physical life from a neuroscientific perspective.
That is the artistic research Untitled*Synapse.

Art transcends boundaries of race, nationality and gender. It is a creative act of unifying in the context of humanity, from the subject to the various topics, by asking questions.

This point is the lack of "reality" (dealing with reality) from a sociological perspective. But it is impossible to define humanity and reality based on sociological statistics alone.

Art itself has no political power, as well no economic power. If art has political and economic power, that is using art for political strategy. e.g. in the context of freedom of expression



B.O.D.Y. (2000–2009)

Analogue photography B&W reversal film

The reversal film for the projection in the cabinet

Hammershøi’s Shadow -> Extra page (Hammershøi's shadow and its stillness or silence, which is an observing time and (e)motion in a space, which relates to Dogen's poem, in my artistic research. Thereby, I attempt to explore and to coin a term “objective subjectivity” in transversal aesthetics.)

The exhibition Beyond the Light: Identity and Place in 19th-Century Danish Art by the Getty Center, an exhibition of tranquil landscapes, and incisive portraits that tells the story of how artists helped forge Denmark's modern cultural identity.

Organized by the J. Paul Getty Museum and the Metropolitan Museum of Art, in collaboration with the Statens Museum for Kunst (SMK) in Copenhagen, the exhibition features over 80 drawings, sketchbooks, oil sketches, and paintings. It will be on view at the Getty Center from May 23 to August 20, 2023. https://www.getty.edu/news/getty-presents-beyond-the-light-identity-and-place-in-19th-century-danish-art/

Interior with an Easel, Bredgade 25 (1912) by Danish artist Vilhelm Hammershøi

Join Dr. Bridget Alsdorf as she delves into Hammershøi's work, examining the long tradition of "artist’s studio" interiors; the role his wife, Ida, played as his primary model/collaborator; and the artist's impact on later Danish film. She explores shadow in Hammershøi’s work not only as a shape-shifting painterly motif, but also as a metaphor for the pairings—past, present, and future—vital to understanding his work.

Dr. Bridget Alsdorf is professor of Nineteenth-Century European Art at Princeton University. She has lectured and published internationally on modern art, and is the author of two books, Fellow Men: Fantin- Latour and the Problem of the Group in Nineteenth-Century French Painting (2013) and Gawkers: Art and Audience in Late Nineteenth-Century France (2022). With the support of a 2023 Guggenheim Fellowship and a grant from the American-Scandinavian Foundation, she is working on a new book about intimacy and collaboration in modern Scandinavian painting, photography, and silent film.

I took these photographs with two types of lenses.

Focus: arorund 1 cm 2


When the body would be separate from the whole of the body–what we see in a very small field of the body–maybe we will find another world of the body.

They are time and space created by light and shadow on the two-dimensional surface. Here, the intervention as a work of art is to make a new discovery far from our perception of the body in our daily life. We cannot see the details of our own bodies. Most of our perceptions of physicality are constructed by the third party.

These photographs gave disabled performers a new sense of body who has been called ugly by their families and society and gave inspiration to them.

Eroticism within them nothing to see, what we see only a reflection on the two-dimensional surface through the light and shadow, in this space and time, their bodies are existed–is a depiction.


Dealing with the Matter in Post-Feminism

It is a key to decolonization.
Therefore, I would like to commit through the publication of #APARN 2023 The Matter of Art on Journal of Research Catalogue as a philosophical knowledge to it horizontally.

After on creativity in this presentation is 'The Self'

As the sunset swings into view, you think, "That's beautiful." You take a bite of cake and you think, "Wow, that's sweet"-maybe too sweet. You hear that new song and it blows you away. You play it for your friends. The novel is wonderful, the movie disappoints, the dress looked better in the store. Aesthetic Life and Why It Matters offers three new answers to Socrates's great question about how we should live that focus on the place of aesthetic engagement in well-being. Three philosophers offer their perspectives on how aesthetic commitments move us through the world and shape our well-being, our sense of self, and our connections to others. Aesthetic engagement is a site for achievement, it cultivates individuality within a context of community, and it satisfies a hunger for exploring our differences. A closing dialogue between the authors probes some flash points in thinking about value: disagreement, subjectivism, ethnocentrism, fads and fashions, and ideology critique. Written in appealing prose, with vivid examples, a comprehensive introduction, and suggestions for further reading, the book is designed as a self-contained module in aesthetics for introductory courses in philosophy.

Changing symbolism through the everyday life:

From symbolism to Shadow as 'Metaphor' -> dealing with the natural phenomenon in everyday life (Notion of Time), Observational



Nature and Mimesis:

Everything we call real is made of things that cannot be regarded as real. Niels Bohr (1885–1962)

Light and Life*. N. BOHR. Nature volume 131, pages 457–459 (1933)Cite this article.

With regard to the SKIN exhibition at Dark Gallery CPH, from the art historical point of view lied in the Danish art and cultural context literary rather in the context of life science, which migt be possible to exolore as a collaborative contribution more profoundly. I did not look at the whole of this exhibiton SKIN at Dark Gallery CPH (June 1 – June 30, 2023) in Copenhagen, Denmark.

I like my work B.O.D.Y. - bodylandscape, these photographic witch expressions through light and shadow–not an engel–wanted to coin an aesthetic account in the experimental photography. My works of photography and film&video were in the context of experimental photography and film&video.– Avant garde since 20th century in the arts (Architecture, Music, Visual arts, Literature, Film, Photography, Performing arts).

The relevance of Niels Bohr's lecture paper "Light and Life" and my artistic research is my task for exploring the ethics of the peaceful use of human knowledge with regard to the topic of creativity in the context of aesthetics.

To explore the topic in ethics and aesthetics practically, I explored a method of meta-epistemological. Thereby I worked on the paper of "the work of art in the age of mechanical reproduction" by Walter Benjamin in 1935 (academic theorised, Benjamn's doctoral thesis).

Practically, Duchamp and many others in Dadaism, Surrealism dealt with its topic. Duchamp coined "ready-made" in the eraly of 20th century (Fontain, 1917)

I dealt in my work between analogue and digital from the notion of the 21st century. My suggestion is thereby a topic 'Correspondence' in the age of the lens of art.

British philosophy is clarified in analytic philosophy methdologically, but it is "vague", unclear, not clear, and the boundary is unknown, for example, "light and shadow" in space. The notion of time is the same also.

Iannis Xenakis


The issue with classical Western philosophy:

In the contemporary era,  it has been solving in the contemporary analytic philosophy and already shifted. It is the same with German idealism such as Kant, Hegel and so on. In the Danish academy, such as Søren Kierkegaard in the 19th century. On the topic of 'shadow' Hammershøi’s Shadow and his philosophical exploration were observational and epistemological. His idea and experience through the photographic exposure by the light (including darkness and shadow), and the art of lense (focus) and its perceptionat that time. -> Notion of Time

Søren Kierkegaard's exploration of the topic of 'shadow' was rather moral in life. It was based on unscientific investigations but rather it lay in the philosophical mind. – Philosophy and Religion in a new sentence

Else Marie Pade


-> Extra page

Pade is one of the important Danish composers in my compositional research within the project B.O.D.Y. for postfeminism theory in art. It's similar to tackling Hideko (Nakatsui) Fujii (1924–2012)* (my great-aunt's) doctoral thesis in natural science (physics and chemistry). Her last invitation for a presentation at an international conference was in Oslo, Norway in 1996, after then she has been researched in the study of image science mainly (for the study of advanced image science, she has been researching since the end of the 1980s, early of 1990s. It is the same as me. The introduction of AI in Japan was early of 1980s.). In 2001, she received the order (the Sacred Treasure 3rd medal) from Japan for education. There is no postfeminism theory in photography from the aspect of out of the Western world yet. In general, people deal with historical feminism but the world of art university is already in the era of postfeminism theory philosophically. This is one of the countries, where there are many female researchers in science in the Nordic Academy.

* Hideko (Nakatsui) Fujii (1924–2012)'s doctoral thesis (French-Canada and Japan).

British philosophy refers to the philosophical tradition of the British people. "The native characteristics of British philosophy are these: common sense, dislike of complication, a strong preference for the concrete over the abstract and a certain awkward honesty of method in which an occasional pearl of poetry is embedded".[1]

Randomness -> X in (E)Motion by Wind -> Body (and Mind) and Time in Space

Analytic philosophy is a branch and tradition of philosophy using analysis, popular in the Western world and particularly the Anglosphere, which began around the turn of the 20th century in the contemporary era in the United Kingdom, United States, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, and Scandinavia, and continues today.

Projection -> X (Shadow), Randomness -> Body (and Mind) and Time in Space

Time of Notion

(Science, its mathematical expression in logic*)

My artistic approach is, how can Quantum Mechanics and Relativity theory be transformed into a literary sense, what we can not directly see, but they have experienced in our natural life?

Phenomenology is a study of aesthetics and epistemology which inter-related to metaphysics, and in regards to social science.

Iannis Xenakis


Paradigm of Iannis Xenakis

Notion of Time

(Arts and Humanities)

In the art, not only Western art, as well as Eastern art–human creation–there is 'Mimesis', a designed model of nature by human(s), that is an important study in human cultural history.

From an anthropological point of view, cosmology is closely related to human science*.

Since Einstein's theory of relativity, it has been studied logically and epistemologically.

*Human science is the objective, informed critique of human existence and how it relates to reality.

What is 'art and science' today?

In South of Europe

In North of Europe

What did the Chinese contribute to mathematics?
Chinese mathematics - Wikipedia
Mathematics emerged independently in China by the 11th century BCE. The Chinese independently developed a real number system that includes significantly large and negative numbers, more than one numeral system (binary and decimal), algebra, geometry, number theory and trigonometry.

I am an artistic researcher who explore transversal aesthetics. I mention that humans evolve according to the "notion of time."

Einstein famously rejected quantum mechanics, observing that God does not play dice. But, in fact, he thought more about the nature of atoms, molecules, and the emission and absorption of light—the core of what we now know as quantum theory—than he did about relativity.


What did Albert Einstein say about probability and quantum mechanics?
In this letter, Einstein's uneasiness with quantum mechanics is apparent, saying that validation of the seemingly random quantum mechanics “…can only be done on the basis of classical mechanics.” Without this validation, quantum theory has essentially “no controllable meaning.”

What is matrix in maths?

matrix, a set of numbers arranged in rows and columns so as to form a rectangular array. The numbers are called the elements, or entries, of the matrix. Matrices have wide applications in engineering, physics, economics, and statistics as well as in various branches of mathematics.


The matrices are a two-dimensional set of numbers or symbols distributed in a rectangular shape in vertical and horizontal lines so that their elements are arranged in rows and columns. They are useful for describing systems of linear or differential equations, as well as representing a linear application.

In the Southern Hemisphere, natural phenomena on Earth in the North and South are opposite to those in the Northern Hemisphere. It is warm in the north and cold in the south.

My sound installation as well as visual installation is which aims, not the automatic way of system for and by humans, but rather for the autonomy of humans as the human-ability of creativity.

Probability distribution functions

A probability distribution function (pdf) for a random variable x is written as f(x).  The best known pdf is the normal distribution.


What is the cumulative distribution of wind speed?
The cumulative distribution function gives the percent of time that the wind speed is less than or equal the wind speed v0, it's expressed by the integral of the probability density function.

Wind speed

On Gender and its self-determination briefly

- As an articulation in the society

"Gendered pronouns specifically reference someone's gender: he/him/his or she/her/hers. Non-gendered or nonbinary pronouns are not gender specific and are most often used by people who identify outside of a gender binary."


Rather than being a social category, it is the new creativity that human beings are here to develop their inner self-awareness and that self-awareness creates a connection with society.

The sound composition between Else Marie Pade and Erika Matsunami (me) B.O.D.Y. (how it relats to my artistic research B.O.D.Y.:

Difference of Klangfarbe/timbre, with psychology and without psychology in the context of neurocognitive aspect. – are two different aspects of 'surrealism' on dream during sleeping–one is from the aspect of psychology (Pad, in the Western culture) and another one is from the aspect of neuroscience (Matsunami, in the Japanese culture, out of the Western world) 

Reference ->Musicology from the Renaissance

Thomas Fuchs, ecology of the brain, Oxford: OUP, 2018 (2007 in Germany)

One of the important things about decolonialism is dealing with Western psychology. This also applies to child sexual abuse in the Western countires (a kind of psychological play of love or be loved situation, which cannot reject.). The starting point of Western psychology was from the aspect of the power, such as 'God' centred world.

We feel, and we perceive the world around us always, even during the sleep.–conscious and nonconscious activities

Mind is contained in conscious.

-> Max Eastley (1944–)

What kind of math is used in quantum mechanics?
The main tools include: linear algebra: complex numbers, eigenvectors, eigenvalues. functional analysis: Hilbert spaces, linear operators, spectral theory. differential equations: partial differential equations, separation of variables, ordinary differential equations, Sturm–Liouville theory, eigenfunctions.

What is the phenomenological approach to physics?
In physics, phenomenology is the application of theoretical physics to experimental data by making quantitative predictions based upon known theories. It is related to the philosophical notion of the same name in that these predictions describe anticipated behaviors for the phenomena in reality.

Supper, Martin, Geschichte und Ästhetik der Computermusik, Darmstadt: Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft, Hofheim: Wolke Verlag, 1997

Nanay, Bence, Aesthetics as Philosophy of Perception, Oxford: OPU, 2016


Commonalities between me, Elastley and Nechvatal (Visual Arts and Music) in the Humanities (liberal arts):

No "F" in fine art, "F" in composition, no relationship between them which was transformed from "something" into another artistic "x".


I am still a young artistic researcher, but Elastley and Nechvatal are the expert in this artistic research field (liberal arts). – Post-Xenakis's generation in liberal arts


1. Time dilation

The separation of the mirrors is L and the clock ticks once each time the light pulse hits mirror A. ... "It's about time: how sci-fi has described Einstein's ...


Light colock

What is the light clock theory of relativity?


The light clock is a simple way of showing a basic feature of Special relativity. A clock is designed to work by bouncing a flash of light off a distant mirror and using its return to trigger another flash of light, meanwhile counting how many flashes have occurred along the way.

The simplest case is when the light clock is perpendicular to the direction of motion. It can be shown that even in the special theory of relativity, observers ...

instein's paper on special relativity revolutionized light, light speed, matter and energy with a deceptively simple equation.

A Matter of Time

Time seems to follow a universal, ticktock rhythm. But it doesn't.

What I'm currently considering

"Shadow" is a natural phenomenon of an object blocking light. The relationship between the shadow and time and space differs depending on the "place" on the earth.
Einstein described time as light1.
There, he considers "shadows" and the spatiality of time and light.
What is the difference between the "shadow" at the equator and at the North Pole in summer in the northern hemisphere?

In this chapter, composers, physicists, and literary scholars are all concerned with the definition of Einstein and their research.



noun: randomness; plural noun: randomnesses
  1. the quality or state of lacking a pattern or principle of organization; unpredictability.
    "we accept randomness in our own lives but we crave logic in art"
  2. informal
    oddness or eccentricity.
    "we tease her for her complete randomness"

Artistic research Untitled*

-> Untitled*Synapse

1:The Measurement Problem (Featuring the Usual Suspects)
2:The Orthodox Solution, Its History and Multiplicity
3:The Debate About Consciousness
4:Physical and Phenomenological Networks
5:The Epoché and the Ego
6:London and Bauer Revisited
7:Completing the Crisis
8:QBism and the Subjective Stance
9:Many Worlds, Many Minds, and (Many) Relations
10:Interpretation or Reconstruction?

Mimesis is not the same as imitation of nature.

Exploring aesthetics and ethics

Poem: ES (it) by Erika Matsunami, 2020, Berlin

„Possibility of experimentation in/between electro-acoustic music and other arts, after the digital revolution", 

EMS18 (Electroacoustic Music Studies Network) - 14th Conference, Electroacoustic Music: Is it Still a Form of Experimental Music?, Villa Finaly, Florence, Italy, 20 – 23 June


Erika Matsunami




This paper is a contemplation about the contemporary aesthetics in/between auditory and visual experiences, and about the possibility of experimentation in/between experimental music and other arts, after the digital revolution.

At the beginning as background the “perception” of human ability and the medium "digital" are considered, and in the process the medium “digital” is compared with the analogue medium as well as the magnetic tape from the point of view of aesthetics. For this, three artistic projects are considered. The first is Symphonie pour un homme seul (Symphony for a Man Alone), an early masterpiece of musique concrète  by Pierre Schaeffer and Pierre Henry, which was composed in 1950, and as a ballet version, choreography by Maurice Béjart, that was first performed in 1955 at the Théâtre de l'Etoile in Paris.

The second is the sound installation Rotations 2  (2016) by Max Eastley, a visual and sound artist, which was represented in the exhibition of two British sound artists (with Martin Riches) “Two Measures of Time” at the Stadtgalerie in Saarbrücken, September 2016 – January 2017. The third is the piece of music Constellations for Koto and electronic sounds composed by Marc Battier, a composer and musicologist, that was played with a koto (a traditional Japanese stringed instrument) by Naoko Kikuchi and electroacoustic sounds at the “Nacht Klang” concert at St. Elisabeth Church in Berlin, August 2012. 

   Simultaneously, materiality and performativity are reviewed with regard to experimental music and visual arts.





Visual information processing is the ability to interpret what “I” see (interpretation), namely a vision to direct the action, such as the effect that is the experience of emotion or feeling. In this experience we have another ability, namely auditory perception. Hearing (audition) is the ability to perceive sound by detecting vibrations. Hearing a sound (in the auditory system) draws the attention to something, evokes emotion. The auditory information will be memorized, recognized, and so on, as is also the case in the two distinct visual systems. The sense of sight (vision) and hearing (audition) belong to the five traditionally recognized senses, the other three being taste (gustation), smell (olfaction), and touch (somatosensation); they are a multitude of senses.1 

   The metacognitive ability is the awareness and understanding of one’s thinking and cognitive processes; thinking about thinking. Metacognition refers to the knowledge in the cognitive processes, in other words the capacity to reflect on our thoughts and behaviors. The perceptional abilities depend on the personal level of perceptual experience. We can reflect those perceptual experiences of the self. This self-reflection is described in the Cambridge dictionary as follows: “The activity of thinking about your own feelings and behaviour, and the reasons that may lie behind them.” The high level of human self-reflection is related to or referred to as the philosophy of consciousness, the topic of awareness, and the philosophy of mind.



Magnetic recording systems have been in existence since 1898, when the Danish scientist Valdemar Poulsen invented what he called a telegraphone, where a magnetic recording is made on thin steel wire. After the end of the Second World War, the rapid advances in technology as a result of the war, an upsurge of interest from many quarters in new sound techniques, and a generally expansionist economic climate provided sufficient incentives for institutions to provide support.Schaeffer has started to experiment in his compositions that he has served the sound as auditive material, and therefore he developed the technique and the method of montage with everyday natural sounds recorded on tape (Schaeffer termed these everyday natural sounds “sound fragments”3 and they were engraved into a spiral groove which was transformed into an auditory and time-based medium) and the recorded sound also included historically and representable archived sounds (fragment of history). For this he developed a unique concept through his research – acousmatic music, which aimed for the auditive rendition in the performative representation. 

   "Acousmatic listening" was indicated by musique concrète composers as listening without seeing – without knowing (to require auditory attention and perception rather than recognition of seeing), and Schaeffer termed the process “reduced listening”. Hamilton claims, “Strictly, reduced listening should not be equated with listening without seeing; rather, it is listening that is enhanced by listening without seeing. The object of acousmatic or reduced listening is what Schaeffer calls a sound-object (objet sonore), apparently discounting the commonsense assumption that sounds are temporal processes rather than things.”4


Time, Space and Body

From Deflection (2004) and Transformation (2006) to ongoing artistic research a.o.i. - lasting memories (2021–) in Untitled* today:


- From electro-acoustic music to computer music (it is the same procedure in visual arts today)

towards from analogue photography to digital photography, and in time-based medium from (analogue) film to (digital) video


Changing materiality and its time and space


Time and space and its chaning materiality

Is our human cognition changing by our relationship with materials? Or will the concept of time and space and perception of materials change as a result of confirming new knowledge?


In fact, with nonlinear and manifold concept of time has brought about a major change in the way we manage our lives.


Thereby, For what is 'logic'? - one is programming, but there are many different types.

Chaning programming today, with AI is through the communication. Thereby, what is the communication? - one is language.


-> Ethics and Aesthetics are one-Wittgenstein


 In the German linguistic way of thinking, minimalism often means reducing and meaningless, but in the German cultural movement, "zero"* is the correct direction in terms of culture and religion. In the English language, minimalism is still explored in linguistics and philosophy of language, but it makes sense linguistically.
In the Japanese tradition, minimalism is about incorporating into the environment, not erasing or eliminating, so it is similar to the German cultural movement.
Thereby obscene and messy style is goodness also. (from the aspect of aesthetics and ethics)

Relating to work of 'zero' concept in German,
poem B.O.D.Y. - the second skin

What is sound art/Klang-Kunst, is it a piece of music, an art object, or neither?

Marc Battier's work is on the stage in the system of the theatre hall. - invisible from the aspect of music – Ethics of Music
My work is in the installation in a closed or open space. - visible from the aspect of visual arts – Ethics of Visual Arts

Paper: Marc Battier's work and Max Eastley

Hammershøi’s Shadow -> Extra page (Hammershøi's shadow and its stillness or silence, which is an observing time and (e)motion in a space, which relates to Dogen's poem, in my artistic research. Thereby, I attempt to explore and to coin a term “objective subjectivity” in transversal aesthetics.)

Hammershøi’s Shadow

is in a space, is not representative and decorative. As well as his wife in this painting, is a part of his life-time. So thereby the question is what is life? The life not a set pose, a static image or an ideal model. It is a moment in time and space. His paintings are the tranquility of a momentary "interval'' between time and time for the future.


In time and space on the sureface of the earth, there is air, temperature differences, and atmospheric pressure. That creates wind.
Wind causes a natural phenomenon called motion, depending on the object that blocks the light.

„es (it)“


Zwischen „Er und Sie“ liegt ES.

E von Er und S von Sie.

Er – ES – Sie

Jede und Jeder haben ihr eigenes ES,

Wie eine genetische Information der Erinnerung.

Die Erinnerung „ES“ ist von einem Mann,

und von einer Frau.

Die Erinnerung der Duplikationen.

Die Erbinformation in der DNA,

die über 1 Million Jahre zufällig generiert wurde.

Wir haben jede und jeder ein ES,

egal ob es eine Frau oder ein Mann ist

 – ein zufälliges Individuum.


Erika Matsunami,  2020

Aesthetics and Ethics are one. – Ludwig Wittgenstein

Explaining the "I" scientifically in the context of evolutionary theory, I am a life form since the birth of mankind on Earth. – 'My' being, it is the same with 'Your' being, also it is the same with 'Our' being

The assumption is that the DNA would have been simpler. The assumption is that we would not have seen such a large variety of today's "DNA" in that one origin.

Humans were not celected by God(s), but rather it has been Human's 'being' naturally.

Genes have an origin. humanity is humanity. Monkeys are monkeys. It never gets mixed up.

From Natural-Beings to Human-Beings

Niels Bohr's and Kierkegaard's (in the research)

Niels Bohr's has the relation to the Indian philosophy rather than the Western philosophy. I explore the contradiction.

Else Marie Pade and Surrealism, in terms of French phenomenology (in the research) Renaissance and Psychology? or neither?

Ianns Xenakis and French phenomenology (in the research), Ancient Rome, or Renaissance, or ancient Greek culture?

Hideko Fujii's and between French phenomenology and chinese mathemathics in randomness in post-war.

Chinese mathemathics in randomness and Dogen's in tradition

What were their ethics?

If there is such a thing as cultural and intellectual "fertilization," what is the difference between the natural sciences and the humanities?

Walter Benjamin, Notes to a Study of the Category of Justice [1916]. Notizen zu einer Arbeit über die Kategorie der Gerechtigkeit [1916]. Translated with the German original by Eric Levi Jacobson


Notes to a Study on the Category of Justice

Every good, limited by structures of time and space, has a posses- sive character trait that is an expression of its ability to pass away. Possession that is trapped by the same finitude, however, is unjust. For this reason, there is no system of possession, regardless of its type, that leads to justice.

This, however, lies in the conditions of a good that cannot be possessed—a good through which all goods become propertyless. In the concept of society, one seeks to give a good to a proprietor that is able to transcend its possessive character.
For this reason, every socialist or communist theory falls short of its goal, as the right of every individual extends to every good. If individual A has a need z, which can be satisfied by good x, and, for this reason, it is believed just that a good y, which is the same as x, should be given to individual B to placate the same needs— this is incorrect. There is, namely, the entirely abstract right of the subject to every good on principle, a right that is not based on needs but rather on justice and whose last inclination will not pos- sibly concern the right to possession of the individual but a right

to goods of the good.
Justice is the striving to turn the world into the highest good. These thoughts lead to the supposition that justice is not a

virtue like other virtues (humility, neighborly love, loyalty, courage), but rather constitutes a new ethical category, one that should probably no longer be called a category of virtue but a cat- egory of virtue in relationship to other categories. Justice appears not to be based upon the good will of the subject but forms the state of the world. Justice refers to the ethical category of the ex- isting, virtue the ethical category of the demanded. While virtue can be demanded, justice, in the end, can only be the state of the world or the state of God. In God all virtues take the form of jus- tice—the byword all in i.e., all-true, all-knowing, points to this. While virtuous can only be the fulfillment of that which is de- manded, righteous is the guarantee of that which exists (through


demands that are perhaps no longer determinable but are never- theless not of the ordinary kind).

Justice is the ethical side of the struggle. Justice is the power of virtue and virtue of power. The responsibility for the world that we share is shielded from the instance of justice.

Our father: do not lead us into temptation, redeem us from evil, a kingdom becomes [two words are illegible], is the request for justice, for the just state of the world. The single, empirical act is related to moral law as an (undefinable) fulfillment of a formal schema. The right to justice, by contrast, is related to the schema of fulfillment. The great impasse of knowledge extending between law and justice is captured by other languages:

ius themis mishpat fas dike zedek

The problem of historical time is already presented in the original form of historical counting of time. Years are countable but in contrast to most countable things, cannot be numbered.

Hammershøi’s Either/Or Author(s): Bridget Alsdorf Source: Critical Inquiry , Winter 2016, Vol. 42, No. 2 (Winter 2016), pp. 268-305 Published by: The University of Chicago Press Stable URL: https://www.jstor.org/stable/10.2307/26547602

"Interest in Kierkegaard’s work picked up considerably in the late nineteenth century,3 at the same time that Hammershøi settled on the domestic interior—a leitmotif of the philosopher’s oeuvre—as the primary subject of his art. Born in Copenhagen, Hammershøi received a thorough academic training, but he forged his reputation as a founding member of Den Frie Udstilling (The Free Exhibition) in 1891 after several of his paintings were rejected by Denmark’s academic jury. He spent most of his life in his native city painting the interiors of two consecutively owned apartments on Strandgade, a harborside street in the seventeenth-century neighborhood of Christianshavn. Although he was notoriously reserved in conversation and no more forthcoming in his letters, we know that he craved the quiet and solitude of his home whenever he was away—not least because he felt that it was the best place for him to paint—and devoted himself to cultivating the spare aesthetic of his domestic space in reality and in representation.4 His painted interiors, which have come to stand for the inward turn of Danish art and literature in the 1890s, are appreciated for their aesthetic rigor, contemplative calm, austere tonalities, and brooding atmospheric effects. In particular, their intense inwardness—both spatial and psychological—gives striking form to the melancholic ambivalence of Kierkegaard’s dialectical tour de force Either/Or: A Fragment of Life(1843).5"

3. See Steen Tullberg, “Denmark: The Permanent Reception—150 Years of Reading Kierkegaard,” in Kierkegaard’s International Reception, ed. John Stewart (Burlington, Vt., 2009), p. 18.

4. For Hammershøi’s (limited and laconic) correspondence, in which he refers multiple times to his longing for home and his greater comfort in painting there, see Hammershøi Archive, Hirschprung Collection, Copenhagen. My thanks to Niels Henriksen for his help in translating these letters.

5. See Søren Kierkegaard, Either/Or, trans. and ed. Howard V. Hong and Edna H. Hong, 2 vols. (Princeton, N.J., 1987); hereafter abbreviated E. Citations will be from this edition unless otherwise noted. On occasion I choose to cite the abridged edition by Alastair Hannay when I believe Hannay’s translation to be superior.

This paper is focused only on 4 pages in English and German. (original is in German)


I read Benjamin's in English in your paper.
I think Benjamin analyzed the concept of “good” versus “justice” and “materiality” of imperialism from the monarchy era.
In other words, I think it's Western ethics and morals from the Renaissance.
What is interesting about Benjamin's research is his methodology.
I think this is a "modern" method that Rosa Luxemburg and Ludwig Wittgenstein also have in common, rather anti-authority in logic.
The issue of goodness as the justice in imperialism is authority. Today, in the contemporary society, goodness lies in anti-authority. i.e. ethics in AI, in computer science.

Mediation of between Authority and Anti-Authority

- on Tolerance

This subject of 'tolerance' is an important leitmotif in this artistic research.What is 'tolerance'? and 'in-between'

Mediation of between Authorities is very difficult to express in logic, that is ceasefire. – In the case of international conflicts and war

'Confrontation' can only in a peace condition (a fair condition), otherwise, the confrontation means killing humans each other.

In 2024, we in European royal art academy shift or has been shifting from the traditional art idealism into the natural reality through the natural scientific knowledge in the 21st century.
His painting today has more aesthetic value.

There is a shift from habitual artistry to art as knowledge.

My work "I-ARUIWA" for the peom by DOGEN, Aruiwa is Japanese that means 'or' or 'Neither' in Englisch.

Or/Neither (from the aspect of critical theory)

By DOGEN in his poem, he expressed the 'whole' of life, not a fragment. 'whole'  in objective subjectivity towards 'whole'  in Western Idealism.

Thereby the question is 'What is time and space in life from the biological aspect philosophically?"

Can quantum physics explain consciousness?

On the other hand, a minority of neurobiologists and physicists maintains "that quantum mechanics is important for understanding higher brain functions, e.g. for the generation of voluntary movements (free will), for high-level perception and for consciousness.”

The quantum mind or quantum consciousness is a group of hypotheses proposing that local physical laws and interactions from classical mechanics or connections between neurons alone cannot explain consciousness, positing instead that quantum-mechanical phenomena, such as entanglement and superposition that cause ...


The brain is a bodily organ: How is this thesis related to the art project B.O.D.Y. - the second skin?
How I explored representing B.O.D.Y. - the second skin at Dark Gallery CPH visually and material, is an important implementation from the aspect of cognitive neuroscience.
I used thereby the internet presentation also. The question for the virtuality and the narrativity of images.

In the bathroom, the visitors could read the poem B.O.D.Y. - the second skin written in Braille through touching. -  tangible process

On Objective subjectivity

What is an act of 'embodiment'?

between bridges

->Thomas Fuchs's