How to frame this project within a performative research paradigm?

A performative research paradigm is a force that might bring about change and development within artistic practice:

Performativity provides an alternative account of how “the new” emerges through iterative practice, rather than through the singular act. We see this “pattern” in our own practices and those of our colleagues and students. It allows us to begin to recognize the conventions (context of theory, context of practice) and map the ruptures that shift practice. Further, it allows us to understand both art as an effect and also what art does in the world (Bolt, 20161).

 

This studie examines the dynamics and significance of practice-led research, and argues for it to be understood as a research strategy within an new research paradigm - performative research:

Attending to the symbolic form of a particular artwork provides a powerful focus for the performative researcher (and their audience) as each symbol functions as a means to conceptualize ideas about aspects of reality, and also as a means of communicating what is known to others (Haseman, 20062).

 

According to Bolt (2016), the effects of the performative in art are multidimensional - they may be discursive, material consequences, and/or affective. To assess these effects, this study analyses the movement in concepts, understandings, methodologies, material practice, and affect and sensorial experience that arise in and through the research experience.  This studie examines the dynamics and significance of practice-led research, and argues for it to be understood as a research strategy within an entirely new research paradigm - performative research. 

 

Haseman (2006) argues for a performative research model for the creative arts, a new paradigm of research, with its own distinctive protocols, principles, and validation procedures. He suggests distinctive research strategies, interpretative methods, and outcomes arising in, and out of, creative arts. According to Schoonenboom (20173), the performative paradigm is a new paradigm that assumes the existence of multiple realities that can be known in various ways. In a research inquiry, researchers create new, unknown worlds, which they subsequently investigate.  Østern et al. (20214) argue that a performative research paradigm offers provocations about what research is, and should be. It produces something new in the world, something that was not there before, regardless of the researcher’s involvement. Research is understood as creation. Doing research within a performative research paradigm means having a performative approach, a specific methodological orientation, different perspectives on what produces meaning. This shift requires methodological innovation and experimentation, a shift from being to becoming. Knowledge is viewed as knowledge-in-becoming. A performative paradigm can produce ethical ways of creating new, innovative, and surprising perspectives entangled with researchers, participants, and the whole research process. 

 

Adopting a relational materialist and performative account of theatre in education, this study focused on understanding the relationship between matter (theatre) and meaning (education) as parts of an intra-active becoming, entangled with the world. Østern, Jusslin, Knudsen, Maapalo and Bjørkøy (2021) argue that a performative research paradigm offers something new in the world, something that was not there before. They suggest that a performative research paradigm has the intention to contribute to a renewal of research in education. The performative research paradigm opens a potential for practice-based exploration in the art form of theater.

 

Østern; Jusslin; Nødtvedt; Maapalo and Bjørkøy (2021) argues that doing research within a performative research paradigm means having a performative approach, a specific methodological orientation, different perspectives on what produces meaning. Knowledge is viewed as knowledge-in-becoming. A performative paradigm can produce ethical ways of creating new, innovative and surprising perceptions entangled with researchers, participants, and the research process.  In a performative approach being a teacher, artist and researcher requires framing the context you are approaching performatively: (1) the thematic content you invite your audience to explore and engage in and (2) the shape of the research design. A performative research paradigm requires the balance between practicing performative approaches and turning them into artful teaching, learning and research. A performative paradigm of research stretches the understanding of how research is understood as creation producing new insight and situated knowledge.

 

A performative paradigm of research stretches understanding of how art produces affects and what it does in the world (Bolt, 2016). This study embraces the possibility of assessing the value of the role of TIE in an educational context. The analysis offers insight into what arises in and through the research experience of the performative in art practice.

 

A performative paradigm can produce ethical ways of creating new, innovative, and surprising perceptions entangled  with researchers, participants, and the research process.  A performative approach is applied on the thematic content the audience is invited to explore and engage in and on the shape of the research design. A performative paradigm of research stretches understanding of how research is understood as creation, producing new insight and situated knowledge (Bolt, 2016).


How might a performative paradigm stretch my understanding, of how new insights and situated knowledge is being produced in the TIE research project?

-  It will be a force that brings change and development within the artistic practice of the TIE project. It will bring new insights and knowledge on how to produced a TIE program and give the production group an insight on what they know and don’t know about the work. It allows us to begin to recognize the conventions (context of theory, context of practice) and map the ruptures that shift practice.

-  It allows us to understand both art as an effect and also what art does in the world

-  A performative paradigm can produce ethical ways of creating new, innovative, and surprising perspectives entangled with researchers, participants, and the whole research process.  Knowledge is viewed as knowledge-in-becoming.

- The art of making mistakes is how we shift and develop practice in the field.

- Stretching a meta-discussion around the effects of the artistic TIE research and articulating the inventions of the work.

 

1 Bolt, Barbara. 2016. “Artistic Research: A Performative Paradigm?” Parse Journal. Vol. 3: 129-142.

Haseman, Brad. 2006. “A Manifesto for Performative Research.” Media International Australia Incorporating Culture and Policy, theme issue "Practice-led Research" 118: 98-106.

3 Schooneboom, Judith. 2017. “A Performative Paradigm for Mixed Methods Research.” Journal of Mixed Methods Research. 13 (3): 284-300.

4 Østern, Tone P., Sofia Jusslin, Kristian Nødtvedt Knudsen, Pauliina Maapalo, and Ingrid Bjørkøy (2021). “A Performative Paradigm for Post-Qualitative Inquiry.” Qualitative Research: 1-18. https://doi.org/10.1177/14687941211027444.

 

What is characteristics of a performative research paradigm?

According to Barbara Bolt (20161) all art is ontologically performative. Art practice is performative in that it enacts or produces art as an effect. Performative research paradigm needs to be understood in terms of performative force of the research, its capacity to effect “movement” in thought, word and deed in the individual and social sensorium.The performative paradigm is characterized by a productive performativity where art is both productive in its own right and as being data that could be analysed.  Performativity has invited new ways of analysis mode that focus on process, participation, events, expressive actions and experience.

 

A performative paradigm of research stretches the understanding of how research is understood as creation producing new insight and situated knowledge (Østern; Jusslin; Nødtvedt; Maapalo and Bjørkøy, 20212).

 

1 Bolt, Barbara. 2016. Artistic research: A performative paradigm? Parse 03 Issue Repetitions and Reneges 3, 129–142.

2 Østern, Tone P., Jusslin, Sofia, Knudsen, Kristian N., Maapalo, Pauliina. and Bjørkøy, Ingrid.  2021. A performative paradigm for post-qualitative inquiry, Qualitative Research, 1–18 DOI:10.1177/14687941211027444

 

Thank you for reading this exploration of methodological and ethical issues connected to my own ongoing research! 

Did this composition arouse thoughts, questions and curiosity to discuss my research? 
Feel free to contact me: nina.dahl-tallgren@wasateater.fi

Performative research paradigm

How might perspectives on research quality, success and failure be reimagined within a performative research paradigm?

Against what criteria do we assess the success or failure of a performance/production? Misfires becomes the source of innovation and moment in the creative artistic research. The art of making mistakes is how we shift and develop practice in the field. By revealing the misfires, there is a possibility that the findings can shift material practice in the field. This is a vital shift in thoughts regarding development of the design. It is important to find all misfires, these offers insight into important principles when conducting a TIE production.

 

Can a performative model make valid “truth” that will be recognized by the broader research community? The performative act does something in the world. It takes the focus away from describing, explaining or interpretation into a new understanding, addressing the success or failure of our performative production. It describes or models, the world; its methodology is replicative and the interpretation of data operates on the logic of truth as correspondence. It is about recognizing and mapping the ruptures and movements that are created by artistic research, understanding the transformative power of art (Bolt, 20161).

 

The dramatic structure requires a balance of understanding, curiosity and respectful listening on the part of the young people in the making of the TIE programme. There is a need to reconsider a pedagogical principle that focuses on the ability of raising questions entangled with the participants in the TIE programme. It is a principle that facilitates knowledge on how to raise questions with sensitivity, understanding and openness for the young people. Developing the art of asking questions, as a concept that shifts understanding and practice, could be a way to support the development of the participants’ thoughts and knowledge. Overall, all misfires offer insight into important principles when conducting a TIE programme.

 

Bolt (2016) indicates that performativity invites new ways of analysis modes that focus on process, participation, events, expressive actions and experience. Art practice is performative in that it enacts or produces art as an affect. But are we artist/researchers  comfortable talking about misfires and highlighting them?

 

1Bolt, Barbara. 2016. “Artistic Research: A Performative Paradigm?” Parse Journal. Vol. 3: 129-142.

TASK for self-refection about misfire

Step 1 
Reflect and answer the question
Are we artist/ researcher conforatble talking about our missfires and highlighting them? Motivate your answer.

Step 2
Think about a missfire in your work and how it has change you or shift your practice? created a performative expression/performance of your story. Record it, dokument it and tell/show your story to a person or a groupe that you might think would appreciate youre story. Disuss what thoughts it evoked and what impression it created. 

 

TIE (Theatre-In-Education), an ongoing research and development project at Wasa Teater during 2020–23

This is an exploration of methodological and ethical issues connected to my own ongoing research work guided by the research area, with an analytical question connected to methodology;

How might a performative paradigm stretch my understanding, of how new insights and situated knowledge is being produced in the TIE research project?

- It will be a force that brings change and development within the artistic practice of the TIE project. It will bring new insights and knowledge on how to produced a TIE program and give the production group an insight on what they know and don’t know about the work. It allows us to begin to recognize the conventions (context of theory, context of practice) and map the ruptures that shift practice.
- It allows us to understand both art as an effect and also what art does in the world
- It can produce ethical ways of creating new, innovative, and surprising perspectives entangled with researchers, participants, and the whole research process.  Knowledge is viewed as knowledge-in-becoming.
- The art of making mistakes is how we shift and develop practice in the field.
- Stretching a meta-discussion around the effects of the artistic TIE research and articulating the inventions of the work.

The performative act doesn’t describe something, it does something in the world. This takes the focus away from describing, explaining or interpretation a work into a new understanding, addressing the success or failure of our performative production. How then do we assess the effect in artistic research? An objective truth and truth as correspondence – as a force of affect, a reception with difference.  It describes or models the world; its methodology is replicative and the interpretation of data operates on the logic of truth as correspondence. It is about recognize and map the ruptures and movement s that are created by artistic research, understanding the transformative power of art (Bolt, 20161).

 

In the TIE program there is ethical reasoning about expressing thought, opinions and how to communicate without discriminating or judging people. Ethical thinking includes values as a filter to guide people to a choice that is ethical. Ethical reasoning is how to think about different issues, respect each other thought and feelings.


Performance research is reflexive and encompassing of various cultural and critical contexts. The research is often overlapping with ethnography and autoethnography.  Performance research discontinuities from traditional research methods in that it is not only interested in the object of study but also the mode of the process. This means that there should be greater attention to the process of collecting research data in terms of how the researcher relates to the project from start to finish (Allen, 20172).


Annette Arlander, Bruce Barton, Melaine Dreyer-Lude and Ben Spatz (20183) has characterised perforamance as research (PAR4) as an inter disciplonary drive of knowledge, methods and impact. Knowledge exploring the areas and manners in which performance can generate knowledge. Methods, investigate methods and methodologies for approaching performance as research. Impact, exploring a broad understanding of the impact of this form of research. 

 

To you, who read this and are exploring my exposition, do you feel I have missed something important about conducting research within a performativ paradigm with responsibility? Does this text raise questions or thoughts in your mind? If you want to send me your thoughts: nina.dahl-tallgren@wasateater.fi

 

1 Bolt, Barbara. 2016. Artistic research: A performative paradigm? Parse 03 Issue Repetitions and Reneges 3, 129–142.

2 Allen, Mike. 2017. Performance Research. (Vols. 1-4). Thousand Oaks, CA: The SAGE Encyclopedia of Communcation Research Methods. 

3 Arlander, Annette., Barton, Bruce., Dreyer-Lude, Melaine. and Spatz, Ben. 2018. Performance as Research. Knowledge, methods, impact. Routledge. UK. 

4 Performance as Research = (PAR) 

 

 

How to conduct this research project within a performative paradigm with responsibility?

Nina Dahl-Tallgren is a doctoral student at Åbo Akademi University in Vaasa, Finland. She works as a theatre teacher at Wasa Teater in Finland. Nina is specialised in applied drama and theatre. She is a project leader, producer and researcher for the TIE ongoing project at Wasa Teater. 

The TIE research and development project at Wasa Teater can be found on this site: https://www.wasateater.fi/vara-tjanster/teater-i-undervisningen/ 

The project engages the audiences by encouraging them to participate within the art form of the TIE program by exploring the theme and learning objectives through collaborative meaning-making.

TASK for self-refection and performativ expression

Step 1 
Reflect and answer the question: Performative Paradigm: What is characteristics of a performative research paradigm?

Step 2
Created a performative expression of your thoughts. Write down everything you think is characteristic. Use the words and sentences you created to create a still image. Once you have created your still image, you can add a movement pattern, sound and lines/word. 

BACKDROP
for this study

The project is placed within a Finland-Swedish context, which means that there is next to no previous experience with TIE in this context.  TIE has existed since the mid-1960s in the UK. Jackson and Vine (20131) have summarised the development of TIE as an art form, suggesting that the dramaturgical thinking in TIE is combining theatre art and learning encounters, and promoting questions and curiosity about a certain theme. TIE is an arts educational participatory form of theatre. Within a safe framework, the audience is faced with problems and situations through which they can explore themes and learning objectives through collaborative learning. 

- What is produced in a meeting with TIE ?
- What does TIE enable for the school's learning environment?

1Jackson Anthony and Vine, Chris. (Eds.) 2013. Learning through theatre. The Changing face of theatre in education. 3rd. Edition. London and New York: Routledge.

TIE is a way of integrating learning and meaning making on an affective level in education. In the making of a TIE programme, pedagogical principles are important, especially the dramaturgical thinking regarding how the programme is composed, framed, and facilitated. TIE empowers participatory exploration, performative construction, and is structured as an aesthetic learning process (Jackson & Vine, 20131).

1Jackson Anthony and Vine, Chris. (Eds.) 2013. Learning through theatre. The Changing face of theatre in education. 3rd. Edition. London and New York: Routledge.

The TIE program consists of three parts: (1) the pre-performance, (2) the performance, and (3) the post-performance.


Pilot of the project: The TIE programme about refugees (2019-2020)

In the program the participants (students 10-12 years old) are framed as refugees in a foreign country with a foregin language. They have forced to flee an ongoing war in Finland. The participants´task is to orentate themselves as refugees in an unfamiliar enviroment guided by the people who decide their fate. 

Trailer: https://youtu.be/oSZIP_B3Sr8
The refugee Tv advertising:
Världen är så stor - Wasa Teater - YouTube

TASK for self-refection aesthetic subjects in school enviroment
Close your eyes and sit comfortably. Let yourself float away into the world of imagination, where anything is possible. Imagine stepping into a school. It is your dream school, how do you experience the aesthetic subjects in the school environment. How is theater in education, art in education, craft in education, dance in education, any art subject you like. look around. Feel. Experience. Take a picture. Open your eyes. Describe the picture with a word and continue the exposition journey...

TIU programme about about ecology, sustainability and the future (2022-2023)

TIE programme explore what characterizes a sustainable future and examine how we find and apply solutions that correct an unsustainable future. The participants are framed as time travelers and follow two characters and their meeting in the forest. The characters, a young man and an older woman are trying to survive together in the existence that made them seek out the forest. They do not know each other, have different backgrounds and the conflicts take turns but notice that they must work together to survive.

About the performance:Glänta - Wasa Teater premier 29.9.2022

Article coming up: How are artograpohic perspektive realixed in performative inguiry in TIE programs?

TIU programme about loneliness (2021-2022)

TIE Loneliness examines why we are lonely and how loneliness affects our thoughts and our behavior. The performance part of the TIE program was facilitated as a performance lecture with three roles: a ‘dog’, a ‘cat’ and a ‘scientist’ and exposition of the animal behavior, connected to community as well as loneliness. The actors, together with the students (13-16 years old), explored loneliness and social resilience from different perspectives. 

Trailer:(Gem)ensam Wasa Teater - YouTube
A digital version of the TIU programme performance part: 
Wasa Teater (gem)ensam 18.2.2022 - YouTube

Article: An art encounter with TIE Loneliness
In this study Finnish secondary school students’ performative encounters with a TIE program called Loneliness is explored, guided by the analytical question: What knowledge does TIE Loneliness as art encounter produce according to the participants?

TIU programme #nofilter about young people and social media (2020-2021)

In the programme the participants (students 13-16 years old) are framed as a role of an influcncer and were invited as live followers during the recording of the of Alexis’ online stream. In the performance Alexis is a role of a famous influencer and gamer with many followers on social media. The participants task is toreflect on how to navigate in the digital world, where critical thinking, consequences and respect are important knowledge to obtain. The student explored identification and communication in relation to social media. 

Trailer:https://fb.watch/dpFucntCEE/

Article: Performative encounters with the TIE programme #NOFILTER

- This study explores Finnish students’ performative encounters with
a TIE programme called #nofilter, concerning social media.