Born: July 15, 1606, Leiden, Netherlands
Died: October 4, 1669, Amsterdam, Netherlands
Periods: Baroque, Dutch Golden Age, Baroque painting

Philosophy of Information

Artificial Intelligence, Deepfakes and a Future of Ectypes

Luciano Floridi1,2

Springer Nature B.V. 2018


The art world is full of reproductions. Some are plain replicas, for example the Mona Lisa. Others are fakes or forgeries, like the "Vermeers" painted by Han van Meegeren that sold for $60 million (Kreuger and van Meegeren 2010). The distinction between a replica and a fake is based on the concept of authenticity. Is this artefact what it claims to be?1 The answer seems simple but, in reality, things are complicated. Today, the paintings of the forger John Myatt are so famous that they are valued at up to $40,000 each, as Bgenuine fakes^ (Furlong 1986). They are not what they say they are, but they are authentically painted by him and not by another forger. And they are beautiful. A bit as if one were to utter a beautiful lie, not any ordinary lie. And an artist like Magritte seems to have painted not only false Picassos and Renoirs during the Nazi occupation of Belgium (Mariën 1983), but also faked his own work, so to speak, in the famous case of the two copies of the painting "The Flavour of Tears" (1948), both by Magritte, but one of which he passed off as falsepartly as a surrealist act and partly to make money. In this mess, and as if things were not confusing enough, digital technologies further reshuffle what is possible and our understanding of it.

Thanks to digital technologies, today it is much easier to establish the authenticity of a work. There are databases where you can check authorssignatures, and millions of images that can be viewed with a few clicks. Selling a fake is more difficult. Figure 1 shows a reproduction of the "Lodge on Lake Como" by Carl Frederik Peder Aagaard (18331895), a Danish landscape painter and decorative artist. It was on sale in 2016 on eBay. The painting is very popular on the web, and there are plenty of good replicas. Nothing wrong with them. However, if you check Fig. 1 carefully, you will notice that this is sold as an unsigned "original", which is misleading to say the least. Both the quality of the painting and the price are suspicious, and a Google image search quickly 

reveals that this is a mere replica. At the time of writing, the painting was no longer available and the seller did not seem to be active on eBay anymore.



This paper deals with the complex topic of originality and authenticity through algorithmic AI in human and non-human society. This paper, let us re-consider that "fake" is not something we generally perceive.

Destruction and construction due to changes in the theory of "capital" and its materialism in and from modern times.

Women's art is the mainstream in contemporary art.

For example, works of art by Chiharu Shiota, a Japanese artist who represents Japan, or the mainstream works of art in the United States and Germany, I think that the auction will disappear naturally.

On the other hand, the emergence of NFT art.

Finally, in the 21st century, the originality and authenticity of works of art will change dramatically. It takes time for aesthetic judgement of the 21st century, it will have happened about 70 or 80 years later.


Since the beginning of the 21st century, the right path of capitalism has collapsed, and the bubble economy has become the goal of escape from inflation and deflation, even though the bubble economy is impossible. But what really happens is that the bubble economy widens the gap between the rich and the poor, politics becomes strongly right-wing in each country, and conflicts and wars occur.

Under such circumstances, it is an era in which mass production is no longer "capital" and must be transformed into a creative era.

Of course, it is permissible for a person to own as many luxury cars as he/she wants, whether they have two or three cars if that person can. Still, there are administrative costs and taxes that are incurred.

I think that Rembrandt was reading Latin books at a time when literate people weren't generally.

Japanese Dutch studies 蘭学  (medicine (anatomy), law and architecture) were also based on Latin, even if it was in Dutsch, is the relationship with Renaissance in Japan.

At the same time, research on Chinese studies 漢学 was active in Japan. Daoism and Chinese Mathematics, Astronomy.

Originality and Authenticity

A research question is "What is 'new life' for us humans?"

The relationship between Japan and Netherlands (Dutsch):

It was a long and deeply relationship (In Hiroado, Japan 1600 (arrived in Japan), from 1634 to 1854 in Dejima, Japan)



I mentioned that is a kind of 'reproducing' by humans.

My suggestion is thereby for a new lifestyle towards 'historical reproduction', is a new economic solution, it was always in the history.

From demonstrations to a presidential address, the Biennale city continues to be a creative platform to criticise Russia's war

May, 2022


By Alexander Keneasspecial To the New York Times

  • June 19, 1968

->The existence of gold, which is the material of the earth, is not so great and a very little part. There is also no meaning. The materialism of capitalism in the modernity of the 20th century is changing currently, such as the Russian Military Invasion of Ukraine is a conflict between Western and Eastern.

When originality and authenticity will be important in the art world, that is clear for the auction.
What is 'auction' in the art world?

Vincent van Gogh (1853–1890)

I studied Fine arts in the institute for art in context at UdK Berlin, so I needed (had) to write from both aspects. So, I studied the Western fine arts in theory and praxis academically. It was a type of today's Pre-PhD course in Study of Fine arts, which was an art academic study. It required two years of art professional praxis. I had the exhibitions at the museum, which was my contribution to the study of sculpture. The study of academic Fine arts is not only to create the art object. It is a very hard study of Art history, Philosophy of Art, Ethics, Aesthetics, Phenomenology, Epistemology, Linguistics, Educational Psychology, Gender studies, Art medium, art techniques, materiality, and so on practically and theoretically.

Philosophy of Information, Philosophy of art, Critical theory and Art criticism belong in the study of fine arts.

Especially, philosophy of art is for 'representational theory' of art is important for study of fine arts.

Critical theory

Vita Nuova (New Life)

- From tradition to modernity, the serious problem of capitalism in the world

Capitalism was present in Europe during the later Middle Ages and historically, has been systematized and globalized during the 16th, 17th, and 18th centuries. Artworld itself is never changed, and won't change, which is the same as capitalism, won't change since the Ancient world, not only in Europe.
Economy, Creativity and Society are humans' habits for Human life, which is the motivation of humans for a living. War is also a part of historical civilisation, but from my aspect, is the contradictions procedure of human development.
Humans have only one head, two eyes, two ears, one mouth, one nose, two arms, one foot (two feet), and one body. (on Human cognition and its norm) Humans cannot see behind. Among the human habits, it was "creativity" that gave humans the most intellectual ability.  I think that humans wouldn't have evolved much if humans had not the ability of 'creativity'. -> (The art is static, but the nature is dynamic.)

We need the reflection, such as the review of Joseph Nechvtal. Thereby, How I read his review Vita Nuova: New issue for art in Italy 1960–1975.  From the historical aspect of Italy, in the early 20th century, what I considered was Italian fascism politically, and Italian Futurism culturally, particularly in Venetian art and culture history. (...)

Venice Biennale today, is a cultural and economic power of the nation, and for a part of the historical cultural and economic power of the nation in the art world. From this aspect, I can see such as Documenta Kassel in Germany as a biennale exhibition has another cultural evolutional content. The Venice Biennale has been having the character before the Second world war, since the Venice Biennale was started, had the character of the international expo which consists of the national pavilions.


The Edo period (江戸時代, Edo jidai) or Tokugawa period (徳川時代, Tokugawa jidai) is the period between 1604 and 1867

The meiji era was rom October 23, 1868 to July 30, 1912.

Io mi senti' svegliar dentro a lo core"

Io mi senti' svegliar dentro a lo core
Un spirito amoroso che dormia:
E poi vidi venir da lungi Amore
Allegro sì, che appena il conoscia,

Dicendo: "Or pensa pur di farmi onore";
E 'n ciascuna parola sua ridia.
E poco stando meco il mio segnore,
Guardando in quella parte onde venia,

Io vidi monna Vanna e monna Bice
Venire inver lo loco là 'v'io era,
L'una appresso de l'altra miriviglia;

E sì come la mente mi ridice,
Amor mi disse: "Quell'è Primavera,
E quell'ha nome Amor, sì mi somiglia."

About what I explore:

What was new for the new life in Italian post-war? – Ethics in contemporary art (New Art/Neue Kunst before and after the second world war in Italy)

-  Film Installation (Audiovisual installation) with the new projection technology, its new time and space in the lyric and narrativity

- Italian post-war, from Fathership to Mothership art as a Healing in the new capitalism and its new symbolism.

- Mothership in Japan and in Italy; the sun is a feminine symbol in Shinto in Japan, and the sun (il sole) is a masculine symbol in Christian in Italy

Projection and femininity in Italian culture (closing to the Islamic culture in the Italian culture, in the review of Nechvatal, it is Byzantine culture.

film Il Vangelo secondo Matteo (The Gospel According to Matthew) ):

Die Sonne in German, il sole in Italian

Der Mond in German, la lune in Italian

Nowadays, gender studies are compulsory, so men are also studying from a feminist perspective. Feminism in the study today is not only for women, but rather it is a very important study for men in art and humanity academically. It is an era when men are aware of and reform the male dominant rights in society and patriarchy.

The critic to a competitive capitalist society and its subconscious through the arts

A critical theory is any approach to social philosophy that focuses on reflective assessment and critique of society and culture to reveal and challenge power structures. With roots in sociology and literary criticism, it argues that social problems stem more from social structures and cultural assumptions than from individuals. It argues that ideology is the principal obstacle to human liberation.[1]

Projection and Reflection in Human and Non-Human society

La Vita Nuova (pronounced [la ˈviːta ˈnwɔːva]; Italian for "The New Life") or Vita Nova (Latin title) is a text by Dante Alighieri published in 1294. It is an expression of the medieval genre of courtly love in a prosimetrum style, a combination of both prose and verse.

The question is, Today, what do we love? – Love in materialism


Vita Nuova in Italian post-war was probably a falling in love, was a new life. Therefore, did love crush Italian fascism?

Workshops in Green x as a starting point of deconstruction of the subconscious of the 20th century from the aspect of post-post colonialism towards neo colonialism:


Three guests of my suggestion


- Joseph Nechvatal (artist, art critics)


- Thoman Fuchs (neuroscientist)


- Bence Nanay (philosopher in art and culture, critical theorist/journalist)

I see also "Vita Nuova is a good show not only because it casts light on what were once considered marginal artists, but because it reminds us that in order for painting or cinema to be dissonant with contemporary consumer culture, it must risk its very identity as painting and cinema. " of Nechvatal in his review. And how I see, is in the new symbolism, is a kind of ideology (reproducing of).

In my artistic research, I explore a 'new lifestyle'.


In this section L (Life), those subjects in the review of Joseph Nechvatal are what I need to explore in the 21st century through and in the art, is contemporary ethics in contemporary art towards the new symbolism, but rather in the environment biologically, is after the Anthropocene in the 21st century.



Alberto Grifi with their ecstatically chopped-and-stretched montage film La Verifica Incerta (The Uncertain Verification, 1964-1965) that was inspired by Marcel Duchamp and made from catch-as-catch-can recycled film clips from Hollywood.

This paper Introduction is academic research by Mathias Fuchs & Ramón Rechert, and Theoretical exploring modell x 4 is my exploring in artistic research through artistic sense without knowing theoretically. I call it "quasi deep learning". I did not read this paper Introduction before. Now I will start to reflect on my artistic research theoretical exploring model x 4. Finally, I will start to read this paper Introduction emotionally and can understand it in sense. Then learning will maybe fun. This model aims to make learning more enjoyable for children and youth, rather than a habit of rebellion or obedience towards and under the machine.


Rethinking AI.  Neural Networks, Biometrics and the New Artificial Intelligence

Mathias Fuchs & Ramón Reichert

Recently, the long-standing research tradition of Artificial Intelligence has undergone a far-reaching re-evaluation. When Herbert Simon in 1956 announced in one of his classes that “[...] over Christmas Allen Newell and I invented a thinking machine” (Gardner 1985: 146) the pioneers of Artificial Intelligence overstated the possibilities of algorithmic problem solving and they underesti-mated the pragmatic potential of it. They overrated the power of their program by proposing that human thinking can be performed algorithmically and they underestimated it by not being able to foresee what machine learning algorithms would be able to accomplish some 60 years later. Simon and Newell’s “thinking machine” was the Logic Theorist, a programme that could create logical statements by combining any out of five logical axioms. This was a scientific sensation in the 1950s and was celebrated as evidence-by-machine of Alfred North Whitehead and Bertrand Russel’s theoretical exposition in the Principia Mathematica. (Russel and Whitehead 1910) Russel and Whitehead demonstrated in an intelligent way that logical theorems could be deduced in an entirely formal manner, i. e. without creative intelligence. Raymond Fancher reports that Russel later admitted, that one of the machine deductions was “more elegant and efficient than his own”. (Fancher 1979) Today we have arrived at a state of computational power, that makes automated problem solving of many tasks more efficient than the ones under human conduct. “Elegance” however, seems not to be an issue any longer.

The “Winter of Artificial Intelligence” that started in the late 1970s (Crevier 1993: 203) pointed out that machines can perform various tasks that look like human thinking, but that an artificial intelligence that thinks in the way humans think is an impossible thing to accomplish. “Human-level artificial Intelligence? Be serious!” was Nils Nilsson’s title for an important paper from 2003. Google Assistant, Deep Face, Alexa and Siri all work, and they definitely work well, but they do not tell us how humans think. The current interest in modelling information processing, closely related to the automation of quasi-intelligent behaviour and machine-based learning, is now permeating numerous research and development areas. This affects a wide range of scientific applications, which are highly affected by the regulation and analysis of complex processes. Thus, the interest for artificial neural networks is especially pronounced in fields of practice in which there is little explicit knowledge about the object area to be investigated. This concerns, for example, the systematic recognition and processing of patterns (texts, images) which are to be controlled by means of deep learning. The methods of neuroin-formatics change large areas of scientific knowledge and have great influence on the knowledge fields of prognosis and diagnostics, classification, simulation and modelling, time series analysis, language development, image processing and pattern recognition.The continuing upswing in life sciences,

Generative art:

R (Programming language)

R is one of 5 languages with an Apache Spark API, along with Scala, Java, Python, and SQL.[53][54]


Generative Art and R

On Pual Klee'd idea briefly (in the works):


Klee's idea was based on Japanese tradition such as へのへのもへじ, today's (data based) a new idea of articulation, mathematical nonsense of 'seeing-in' (i.e. in Richard Wollheim).

-> Green x (2022/23 Winter–)

Art criticism

Vita Nuova: New issues for art in Italy 1960-1975 

Museum of Modern and Contemporary Art (MAMAC)

Place Yves Klein, Nice

May 14 through October 2, 2022 


Hélène Guenin, director of Museum of Modern and Contemporary Art (MAMAC) in Nice, invited French art historian (of Italian descent) and specialist in Italian Modernism—Valérie Da Costa—to guest curate a historical re-reading of the Italian art scene between 1960 and 1975. The resulting multidisciplinary Vita Nuova (New Life) takes its title from a book of verse written by Dante Alighieri in 1294, indicating to me that what was once old can be seen as new again. As with the 2022 Biennale di Venezia exhibition The Milk of Dreams, Vita Nuova establishes—or restores—the importance of many female artists whose past contributions have only recently begun to be more fully valued.

Though the non-exhaustive emphasis is on the participation and image of Italian women during the Pop Art 60s (of which the MAMAC collection excels) into the ardent Conceptual and Body Art trends of the early 70s, Vita Nuova does not feel artificially squeezed by a gender driven agenda. Rather, I gained a balanced and expanded appreciation of the era through the inclusion of well-selected design practitioners and through an emphasis on Italian cinematic production. The show feels full, but not overwhelming, with 130 works from 60 artists—more than half women—many coming from The School of Piazza del Popolo in Rome—along with some choice Neo-Dada archival documents.


Prominence is placed on projected moving images, that in the hanging of the show are delicately balanced with the lighting needs of the wall and floor art. The show begins with fabulous film clips from Federico Fellini’s La Dolce Vita (1961), Pier Paolo Pasolini’s Accattone (1961), and Michelangelo Antonioni’s Red Desert (1964) and ends in a climatic éclater with Fabio Mauri’s 1975 film installation Intellettuale. Il Vangelo secondo Matteo di / su Pier Paolo Pasolini (Intellectual. The Gospel according to Matthew by / about Pier Paolo Pasolini). It is an intense still echo—with 15 black and white photographs in a dark and moody room—taken at the screening/performance that Mauri created with the participation of Pasolini. On May 31st 1975, shortly before Pasolini’s enigmatic death, Pasolini sat in the Galleria Comunale in Bologna and had his black-and-white 16 mm film Il Vangelo secondo Matteo (The Gospel According to Matthew) projected on his white shirt. This intimate presentation is simulated with a projection of Il Vangelo secondo Matteo on a clean white shirt and jacket draped over a simple wooden chair. Walking into that room, I felt a curious thrill pass through my nervous system—antagonistic, apprehensive, anxious—as the churning sound of the 16 mm projector merged with the romantic sound track and Italian voices of Il Vangelo secondo Matteo.


In-between those film brackets, representatives of 15 years of Italian art are demurely presented not chronologically—but thematically. Cross-cutting the topics of A Society of Images, Reconstructing Nature (via Pino Pascali) and The Body's Memory: porous themes that demonstrate the circulation of artists and ideas in and around visual, ecological and body issues. For example, both Archizoom Associati’s Superonda Sofa (1967) and Pino Pascali’s shaped-canvas relief Cascate (Waterfall, 1966) use massive smooth white wavy forms, like the contours of immense bodies sleeping under sheets.

Robert Rauschenberg winning the Grand Prize for Painting at the 1964 Biennale di Venezia launched a transition in Italy (as elsewhere) away from the gestural aesthetics of Abstract Expressionism and towards the figurative and boldly colored painting style commonly associated with Neo-Dada (aka Pop Art, a term not used in Italy yet). Italian Neo-Dada enthusiasts celebrated the way that popular culture connected to the everyday banal existence through its appropriation of existing popular images that reference consumer culture. Unsurprisingly, that spliced in with the Italian transformational years of gusto—the 1960s and early-1970s industrialization of production and capitalist consumerist culture. These forces opened the door for new modes of representation in Italy (as elsewhere) and it is this historical and political context, along with attendant Marxist and Feminist political movements, that form the dreamy nostalgic milieu of Vita Nuova.  

From my standpoint, these years in Italy seem inhabited by a fascist-traumatized generation who came to regard post-war freedom and luxury from an aesthetic point of view. This well before art institutions began to orient themselves towards middle-class consumerist consumption that is merging today into an increasingly mobile popular world of experience-based technological leisure.

Some examples: Fabio Mauri’s Marilyn (1964) makes a rich point of resistance to the Pop Art masterpiece Shot Sage Blue Marilyn (1964); Andy Warhol’s 1964 silkscreen painting that is much talked about recently due to its outrageously high auction price of $195 million. Mauri applies—then denies—the same logocentric commercial standard of Warhol’s Marilyn to Elsa Martinelli, an Italian brunet actress, through the addition of the abstracted silence of a visually empty TV screen image. Franco Angeli’s painting on cardboard Abbraccio eterno (Eternal Embrace, 1968) also uses empty abstraction to bring a sense of openness to the cliché image of two people kissing. Making a similar point are Gianfranco Baruchello and Alberto Grifi with their ecstatically chopped-and-stretched montage film La Verifica Incerta (The Uncertain Verification, 1964-1965) that was inspired by Marcel Duchamp and made from catch-as-catch-can recycled film clips from Hollywood. 

Vita Nuova is a good show not only because it casts light on what were once considered marginal artists, but because it reminds us that in order for painting or cinema to be dissonant with contemporary consumer culture, it must risk its very identity as painting and cinema.

After these workshops as the starting point of my artistic approach, I will be able to relate with artists and their artworks in the global south (the third countries). Otherwise, as a female artist and colour, and non-Western artist, it is impossible to relate with the global south in their institutions because of racism and sexism by their patriarchy, even if the second countries such as Russia.

This draft is exploring and improving for an advanced version. (in the works)

Art criticism is the discussion or evaluation of visual art.[1][2][3] Art critics usually criticize art in the context of aesthetics or the theory of beauty.[2][3] A goal of art criticism is the pursuit of a rational basis for art appreciation[1][2][3] but it is questionable whether such criticism can transcend prevailing socio-political circumstances.[4]

With my 'quasi deep learning' (emotional learning) method using AI, I love studying now, thereby creating art makes me fun for creativity (to create visual and audio codes as an expression or a narrativity) with a new notion as my experience through reading.

To see on the subject of  'transversality' of the body  in my artwork/project is B.O.D.Y. - hidden codes

What is the critical theory today between the Philosophy of information and art criticism?

-> Page: AI

Thereby from may reserach aspect toward Russell's is a key, that is

Art is a kind of a play in sense, and a kind of organisation through the sense.

-> On undescribed Femininity/unbeschriebene Weiblichkeit and gender equality in the digital and information society era -> Post-feminism in the 21st century

The number π

As the artworks on sensibility, as well as mine, consists of ambivalence and intersectionality between visual and audio levels characteristically. It makes a new sense of nothing, there is no symbolism and no expression of symbolism.

Sensibility is not weakness.
It's like a taste that you don't know whether it's sweet or spicy, such as you don't know whether you feel sad or happy, but you feel somthing.

Nothing, but, artistic concept and composition have the logical structures of de-signed, de-coded, ...are notion of each artist.

Art for fun, ...between poetical, political and ironical...?

As an artwork, Nechvatal is "an art is something 'x'" towards such as Da Vinci's. Da Vinci's artwork and his exploration were in the direction of the art, either art could be a weapon or the aim of peace (Medicine and Religion), which is the Western traditional art and science from the Renaissance in Europe. In the New art (Neue Kunst) in Europe, 100 years ago, many artists such as Surrealism, Dada, Cubism, as well as Bauhaus rejected that direction and started art movements of contemporary art.

Franz Koppe war der Professor of Philosophy at the HdK Berlin/UdK Berlin, Germany. I studied Thesen of Nelson Goodman, Arthur C. Danto, and many others. My artistic research "Point in Time" (2013), I dedicted his death. The concept, the participating artists and the event were well received. As a starting point for an art lab in Berlin, it was successful in 2013. Nevertheless, Part 3 was so difficult that I couldn't deal with feminist art beyond the continent profoundly, because of the classical education of male and female in the context of the classical society. Feminist art in another continent would be involved in the total conservative. My suggestion is thereby not for the ideological, but rather technological solution. In fact, technology has liberated women from female slavery. For example,  from house organisation in daily life such as washing, cleaning, and cooking. -> Mariarosa Dalla Costa

I think that Mariarosa Dalla Costa's theory might be possible to apply to postcolonial feminism in the global south (third world), in the context of Christian culture and native culture.

Unfortunately, in 2014, some important documents were stolen by the robbery (burglary) in my atelier. In 2014, it was a very hard year, because the crisis in Ukraine, was changed in Berlin also. (When a dispute arises, then crime increases. Rivalry will also be fierce.)

„Nach Nelson Goodmans These sind Sinn und Zweck von Kunst und Wissenschaft gleich. Beider Ziel sei Erkenntnis. Und zwar Erkenntnis als (selegierende, sortierende, konstruierende) Organisation von Wissen. In diesem Sinne ist das Wesen von Wissenschaft und Kunst gleichermaßen >kognitiv<, ihre Qualität >kognitive Vortrefflichkeit<.“ (Franz Koppe: Kunst als entäußerte Weise, die Welt zu sehen. Zu Nelson Goodman und Arthur C. Danto in weitergehender Absicht. In: ders. (Hrsg.): Perspektiven der Kunstphilosophie. Texte und Diskussionen; Frankfurt/M., 2. Aufl. 1993)

According to Nelson Goodman’s thesis, the aim and purpose of art and science is the same: cognisance, i.e. insight as the (selecting, sorting, construing) organisation of knowledge. In this sense, the essence of science and art is equally “cognitive”, its quality “cognitive excellence”. (Franz Koppe: Kunst als entäußerte Weise, die Welt zu sehen. Zu Nelson Goodman und Arthur C. Danto in weitergehender Absicht. In: Franz Koppe (Ed.) Perspektiven der Kunstphilosophie. Texte und Diskussionen; Frankfurt am Main, 2nd edition, 1993.)

The context of this artistic research is human and non-human society.

But, I don't know yet, what is a human and non-human society.

Do you know it?

Pi and geometry, and Rosewater's 'femininity', a culture of elegance, but elegance could also be very brutal. (Elegance is not the same as sensitivity.) ...
Symbolism: The important question is thereby whether symbolism could be awareness as well as knowledge? The problem and the gap between formalism and knowledge in culture. (a necessity for/toward semi-formalism)

The artworks of those three artists are male, but their works deal with the subject of sensibility after the anthropocene from the perspective of the 21st century.

Most of the represented women's artworks are the great, strong, unique, or imaginative femininity, however, are generally have a strong impact.

Whether is art activism semi-formalism? Today's art activism its dual poles between the right concept and the left concept. The contemporary law for freedom of expression is open to both poles.

verb: hate; 3rd person present: hates; past tense: hated; past participle: hated; gerund or present participle: hating
  1. feel intense dislike for.
    "the boys hate each other"


  • have a strong aversion to (something).
    "he hates flying"
  • used politely to express one's regret or embarrassment at doing something.
    "I hate to bother you"
not like
    • hesitate
    • informal
      express strong dislike for; criticize or abuse.
      "I can't hate on them for trying something new"
noun: hate
  1. intense dislike.
    "feelings of hate and revenge"


    • h
      favourite thing
Old English hatian (verb), hete (noun), of Germanic origin; related to Dutch haten (verb) and German hassen (verb), Hass ‘hatred’.
Translate hate to
Use over time for: hate

Why is the study of art philosophy and aesthetics so important?

There is no example that this is art.

Art is a philosophical reflection of the human world.
For example, what is art? is an important research question.


So that art is a contribution.

Art and its transformative knowledge in the avant-garde in post-war:

Noise music itself today does not have a significant impact on our life and industrial culture. Technology has been exploring the reduced pollution, and performativity also does not give us a considerable impact anymore, because everything is moving and transforming algorithmically.


In West Berlin during the 90's, the feminist movement was centered around homosexuality, especially men's coming out and men's feminism were very important against father land (reunificated Germany). It wasn't mixed with homosexuals, heterosexuals, and bisexuals as it is now. It was still a separate era of men and women, but in gender studies, there were not only women's studies but also men's studies. It was the time, that was started to explore gender, and to be activated as lifestyle in Berlin.

In my experience, it is better for men to explore their own femininity, which reduces violence against women and allows women and men to become friends across genders. Equality between women and men is, in some cases, a social competition between men and women. Maybe, the male pride that "I am a man" kills a woman.

I want you to raise humans, not social males. I want you to raise humans, not females loved by males. Why do women prostitute? Because men are often incapable of working, such as who is her father, her married person, or her lover.

Holocaust is not racism, Holocaust was fascism. It was the German Nazi war crimes. Today, in Western countries including Japan, racism is prohibited. Antisemitism is racism and an ideology, so it is forbidden and is a criminal act. Do you know "What is racism"? ...let's think, why is Antisemitism forbidden? and what is 'ideology'? If the black Americans call up Antisemitism, it means that they allow 'racism'. then, the law in the human-right does not work against racism. I think that is not performative, but rather self-destructive for and by the black Americans. ...

Do you know the meaning of 'hate'?
The word 'Hate' is Germanic originally.
Today people are using the word 'Hate' is the word as a kind of tool (as a sign), and dislike 'Like' and 'Love' of Social media communication. Love, Like and as well as Hate, we can not easily express.
Thereby I would like to ask for "feel intense dislike for", and as well as feel intense like for". I think that both are problematic, whether hate or love.

Mapping the Margins: Intersectionality, Identity Politics, and Violence Against Women of Colour

by Kimberle Crenshaw

-> On undescribed Femininity/unbeschriebene Weiblichkeit and gender equality in the digital and information society era -> Post-feminism in the 21st century



The concept of intersectionality was introduced to the field of legal studies by black feminist scholar Kimberlé Crenshaw,[15] who used the term in a pair of essays published in 1989 and 1991.[8] While the theory began as an exploration, primarily, of the oppression of black women within society and the ways in which they both exist at an intersection, and experience intersecting layers of different forms of oppression, today the analysis has expanded to include many more aspects of social identity. Identities most commonly referenced in the fourth wave of feminism include race, gender, sex, sexuality, class, ability, nationality, citizenship, religion, and body type. The term was not adopted widely by feminists until the 2000s and has only grown since that time.

'necessity' is not a common, but rather a reason of each oneness..., that is something that cannot be forced.

Fourth-wave feminism became a movement for women to speak up and share their experiences online about sexual abuse, sexual harassment, sexual violence, the objectification of women, and sexism at the workplace, by using the hash tag to give away the individual or individuals. The internet gave women the opportunity for their voice to be heard around the world in a matter of seconds. The internet became a universal platform offering women the opportunity to speak freely about sensitive topics on their own time and on their terms. As women all over the world began sharing their personal stories they realized the magnitude of the problem and how it was happening everywhere. The use of the internet is a key factor of the fourth-wave.[4]

Hash Tag and its contradiction in the social media:

For example, losing the meaning and the context of the subject, virtual collectivity, misreading, and so. However, it was integrated into the society (Normalised) -> Civil rights, Human rights, Individual property, Private sphere


-> It seems that it was integrated into the society

The hate issue



Brett Ashley Kaplan

BRETT ASHLEY KAPLAN directs the Initiative in Holocaust, Genocide, Memory Studies and is professor in the Program in Comparative and World Literature at the University of Illinois. Her most recent book is Jewish Anxietyand the Novels of Philip Roth (Bloomsbury Academic, 2015) and she is currently writing a novel, Rare Stuff



Racism is a very complex human issue, just like hatred.

For example, Are the Black African, Islamic and/or Israeli heterosexuals, and other orthodox against homosexuality or are for compassion?


-> It also seems intersectionality of fundamentalists in the social media, e.g. as well as the Antisemitism movement in Germany together with German nationalist and Islamic-German Immigrant today, like a #hate

Thereby, whether hate is opposed to 'like' in social media?

African Laughter

By Gankhanani Moffat Moyo

The laughter of Africa
 Echoes in the forests
Tingling cackles
Like falling glass
Clear of tears
And full of mirth
The happiness
Of African thoughts
On the rich dark humus
Wherefrom the laughter Is born
The laughter of Africa
Like a spear in the air
Sent to strike cold hearts…
But we are Africans
Whose laughter
Like falling rain
Dampens all hearts
And the tears shed
To give new lives.

Read more at:

This topic 'antisemitism' from today's aspect  is like a mental black hole in European history.

Issue of Antisemitism in feminism after the reunification in Germany:


Anti-semitism during the second world war by the German Nazi regime was against not only Jews in Europe, but rather against disability, communist, communist feminist, anarchist, gay and lesbian, sinti, anti-fascist.


Antisemitism in post-war;

Federal Republic of Germany <FRG>: Israel -> West (Anti-racism, Judaism (Freedom of religion))
Former East Germany <DGR>: Palestina -> East (Antisemitistic political position, but against the German Nazism)


Today in the society of gender equality;

Antisemitism in Anti-antisemitism (Anti-racism) soceity, Federal Republic of Germany <FRG>. Antisemtism against anti-racism, anti-fascism, anti-sexism, LGBT, and feminism

Palestinian survival and existence crisis, similar to Israeli survival and existence crisis in Islamic culture



From my research aspect, 'intersectionality' works only in narrativity, but it's better not only ontological way, but rather contradictional, those of diversity.

Digital global culture and its economic solution through the community:

I mention that is an avant-garde through the community in the digital era, which dose not provide by the big date of the social media in a starting point of the small data.

I think that the small data is not only for the archive.

Whether 'narrativity' or 'virtuality' of representation online?

Current issue of anti-semitism in Europe from my research aspect is  the Western politics in Islamic countries including Palestina together with the historical European/Western virtuality.

My question is thereby, whether the feminist movement and feminist academic aspect through 'intersectionality' can solve those world and historical issues?

For example, the discrimination in caste system of the third world for the transition from tradition to modernity, as well as the issue of neo colonialsim in capitalism.

What is 'narrativity'?

Thereby the question is always about 'originality' of in-situ on earth towards digital globality.

-> Ukraine's crisis due to Russian military aggression

-> Germany is a country of double meaning, I don't know in which way they are, whether Zionism or Antisemitism?

Origin of 'intersectionality':


What is intersectionality?

Put simply, intersectionality is the concept that all oppression is linked. More explicitly, the Oxford Dictionary defines intersectionality as “the interconnected nature of social categorisations such as race, class, and gender, regarded as creating overlapping and interdependent systems of discrimination or disadvantage”. Intersectionality is the acknowledgement that everyone has their own unique experiences of discrimination and oppression and we must consider everything and anything that can marginalise people – gender, race, class, sexual orientation, physical ability, etc. First coined by Professor Kimberlé Crenshaw back in 1989, intersectionality was added to the Oxford Dictionary in 2015 with its importance increasingly being recognised in the world of women’s rights.

My research position is anti-anti-Semitism, anti-racism and anti-fascism

Towards neo-colonialism (I mention that the Russian military invasion of Ukraine is neo-colonialism.) the role of nationalism will be strong because of the existential reason of the nation.

I never expected this to happen in the 21st century.

A new articulation and a new lifestyle

-> Practical exploring: Life

From my research aspect, there are many gaps between local and nations and global levels of nations (and their originality) of the space-time in which people live and operate.

The problem (conflict) between Israel and Palestine becomes bigger and more serious internationally, the more political solution gets to be involved with more and more other nations.

The gaps between tradition and modernity, between nature and technology, between politics and culture, between economy and life,