I. The distinction between ordinary and metaphorical language is based on a conception of language as a medium for communication conveying true or false statements. This presumed clear demarcation between ordinary and metaphorical sentences collapses in Davidson's view that a metaphor's meaning is its literal meaning: there is no hidden or additional, new or extended, figurative meaning in metaphors, rather meaning lies on the surface. Davidson also dismisses understanding metaphor as an ambiguous or contextually dependent utterance. The problem of production and interpretation of metaphors is revisited
in terms of what words mean and what they do, as Davidson assigns metaphors to the realm of language usage. Anyone attempting the interpretation of a metaphor cannot simply paraphrase to convey the metaphor's meaning; as far as analytic truth is concerned, metaphors are usually false. In interpreting metaphors, one would instead show what is brought to attention.
Davidson's definition of metaphor as seeing as, and not as seeing that, explains that metaphors provide insight by making visible one thing as another.
II. The crisis or denial of representation by the dismissal of the artistic conception of the work in the interpretative frame of figure/content, for Sontag, indicates the modern motivation to escape the interpretative quest for meaning. To experience and show how, even show that, things-being-what-they-are, one has to drop the pretence of interpretation, which takes for granted the work's sensory experience.
In Camp, which is a sort of aestheticism of primarily stylistic concerns, characterised by a preoccupation with artificiality, the exaggerated, things-being-what-they-are-not, takes prominence. Sontag argues that Camp does not depend on a construction of a literal and a symbolic meaning, but on the difference between things meaning something and things as pure artifice: "it is one way of seeing the world as an aesthetic phenomenon". Again, reducing content is the task at hand to allow someone to see the thing at all.
Unlike the novel, film's formal vocabulary offers other than content material for analysis.
Davidson, Donald, "What Metaphors Mean". In Critical Inquiry, Vol. 5, No. 1, 1978.
Sontag, Susan, Against Interpretation, London and New York: Penguin Books, 2013 (1964).