a) The use of enharmonic intervals as a modulating means. “Modulating” is not used here in its modern sense (…). But the primitive Indian systems and those deriving from them do not consider that the places the smallest intervals occupy in the melodic series (i.e. the semitones of our tempered scale)- the scales- are invariable. In those systems the production of intervals that inhibit similar movements obey a rising or a lowering of the voice, which originates in the expression given to the sung word. (…) Moreover, each of the notes that could be altered was divided and subdivided, so that in certain cases the starting and finishing notes in some fragments of phrase were altered, which is exactly what happens in the cante jondo. To this we must add the frequent practice in Indian songs as well as in ours, of the vocal portamento, that is, the way of leading the voice so as to produce the infinite nuances existing between two joined or distant notes. (…) In summarizing this, we can affirm that in the cante jondo, as well as in the primitive eastern songs, the musical scale is a direct consequence of what we could call the oral scale. (…) What we now call “enharmonic modulation” can be considered, in a certain sense, as a consequence of the primitive enharmonic genre. Yet this consequence is apparent rather than real, because our tempered scale only allows us to change the tonal functions of a sound, whereas in the actual enharmonic process that sound is modified according to the natural needs of its attractive functions.
b) We recognize as peculiar to the cante jondo the usage of a melodic field that seldom surpasses the limits of a sixth. This sixth, of course, does not consist only of nine semitones, as in our tempered scale; through the use of enharmonic intervals, the number of sounds the singer can produce is substantially increased.
c) The repeated, even obsessive, use of one note, frequently accompanied by an upper or by a lower appoggiatura. (…) In certain songs of the group we are considering, (particularly in the siguirilla), this device permits the destruction of every feeling of metrical rhythm, and thus gives the impression of sung prose, although the text is in verse.
d) Although gipsy melody is rich in ornamental features, there are used only at certain moments –as they are in primitive oriental songs- to express states of relaxation or of rapture, suggested by the emotional force of the text. They have to be considered, therefore, as extensive vocal inflexions rather than as ornamental turns, although they sound like the latter when they are “translated” into the geometric intervals of the temperate scale.
e) The shouts with which our people encourage and incite the cantaores and tocaores also originate in a habit still to be observed in similar cases among the oriental races.20