Exposition: ONE MOTORBIKE, ONE ARM, TWO CAMERAS (01/01/2015) by AINARA ELGOIBAR
Comment by Erika Matsunami 14/03/2015 at 10:05
 
Computerised Motion by the Notion as Visual Composition 
- Contemplation for the video work ‘One Motorbike, One Arm, Two Cameras’ (2014) by Ainara Elgoibar

 

“The idea of creating a video work, ‘One Motorbike, One Arm, Two Cameras’ (2014) by Ainara Elgoibar, that explores the question of how an industrial robotic arm would see a handmade product, is used as a pretext to generate a meeting point for different agents in the framework of the production of an art project entitled ‘To Shoot And to Surround’ (2013).”

 

It is a film event built on the idea of dislocation in the common uses of its leading actors: a motorbike restored to be a museum piece, an industrial robotic arm programmed to produce the image of something that was fabricated with a pre-robotic sensitivity, and a sculpture for a history without a monument (Ainara Elgoibar, ‘One Motorbike, One Arm, Two Cameras’, Research Catalogue, 2014).

 

 

A two-channel video shows us moving images reconstructed with details of a motorcycle that were taken from a programmed robot (robotic arm). By programmed awareness of the robot’s shooting, the object ‘motorbike’ is abstracted, which characterises that these moving pictures are sterile (that the thereby resulting motion pictures are sterile). The unemotional noise of the machine (robot) was edited together as background sound of this video. I’d like to have an opportunity to learn more about this two-channel video installation. What is very important to consider about this work is the sound. I’d like to know whether this sound is stereo or multi-channel, and more. Thus the figurative abstraction is reinforced by this minimal noise and also as a subversion of the illusion.

 

Parallel to his two-channel video I think about ‘minimal music’, One + One (1968); the composition by Philip Glass “consists of the two rhythmic components in ‘continuous, regular arithmetic progression’1 put together and realised by striking the hands on a table without that Glass has explicitly given mathematical structure” (Minimal Music, Ulli Götte, 2002). In contrast to the composition One + One (1968) by Philip Glass I contemplate for the work ‘One Motorbike, One Arm, Two Cameras’ (2014) by Ainara Elgoibar – which is a musical composition while the other is an audiovisual composition – an auditory representation and visual representation, musical and (photo-)graphically, fertile and sterile, emotional and unemotional in the minimal structures, in both compositions mathematical structures are explicated in their notions. The ideas are presented as a work or piece; one was produced by a robotic arm while the other was created by the hands of a human but both were conceptualized by the human.

 

Minimalism in the visual arts: “There are two distinct terms: the known constant and the experienced variable”, Morris maintained, touching on the philosophical dichotomy of knowing and seeing. “You see a shape – these kinds of shapes with the kind of symmetry they have – you see it, you believe you know it, but you never see what you know, because you always see the distortion and it seems that you know in the plan view.”2 Arnheim3, however, suggested that the brain compensates for or corrects what the eyes see (Minimal Art – The Critical Perspective, Frances Colpitt, 1990). In a way of thinking of minimalism, it is possible to reduce the attribute and to reinforce the message and the perception of the arts; the minimalism is thus a complete art form. But on the other hand the expression and image logic is rejected in minimalism by automating the production. Of course, technology gives us more and more new opportunities that not only serve as a function, but rather (life-) styles and concepts can be developed by new ways of thinking. Whatever is indicated, however, our basic existence is not changed by technology; we live and we die as the law of nature wants.

After the digital revolution of Minimal Art today, minimalism is a kind of reflection of contemporary society. I think simultaneously of humanity in the digital industrial system. The question is what art presents to us and what we see and understand what is made visible with art.

 

“With reproduction as the moment of individuality, the living being posits itself as an actual individuality, a self-related being-for-self; but at the same time it is a real relation outwards, the reflection of particularity or irritability towards an other, towards the objective world. The process of life, which is enclosed within the individual, passes over into a relation to the presupposed objectivity as such, in consequence of the fact that when the individual posits itself as a subjective totality, the moment of its determinateness as a relation to externality becomes a totality as well” (Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel, Science of Logic).4

For a long time people have dealt with humanity and its existence. Art has assumed an important role as a visualization of thinking. However, art not only has the iconographic character to be a symbolization, expression and representation, but it also influences the human psychology in relation to the brain and the individual perception and emotion, etc.

For example, Zekiclaims: “Yet no one has been able to relate the variability in artistic creativity and appreciation to any given brain structure or process, partly because no one knows the neural processes underlying the creative impulse or brain variability. And yet these differences in brain organization, whatever they may turn out to be, are superimposed on a common plan that is characteristic of all brains. It is this common organization that allows us to communicate through art and about art without using the written or spoken word.”6

In the case of the mathematical information as creation which is provided by the digital sensors of the computer and the programmed idea or the concept that arises from the idea of the human, and when this artwork (information of image) enters through the brain, according to this, I start to contemplate on the automatization (programmed recording without human eyes – “without seeing”) and also reflect on their creation (what is robotic creation).

The creation of visual art is a kind of intensive non-verbal “communication” that remains of the statement on the work of Elgoibar, or it could also “not remain” a statement of his work, it’s thereby made us descriptive or perspicuous about the technology in human life; what “alive, mortal and fragile” means for us.

Zeki claims in his essay on the influence of “abstraction” in the memory system on the brain and with reference to philosophy its “idealism” from the neurological aspect that: “Abstraction is also imposed on the brain by the limitations of its memory system, since it does away with the need to recall every detail. (...) Abstraction leads naturally to the formation of ideals. Plato used the term ‘ideal’ to mean a universal – derived from the intellect alone – as opposed to the particular, derived from sensory experience. Because memory of the particular fades, the ideal built by the brain from many particulars becomes the only real thing about which we can have knowledge, much as Plato and Kant believed.”7

 

As artistic work “One Motorbike, One Arm, Two Cameras” (2014) by Ainara Elgoibar is, I would assume, vibrant in the specific context, which doesn’t consist only of the computerised motion pictures by the robotic arm. Other contexts include the audiovisual context, the context of the film production such as the shooting in the nuclear power plant in Fukushima or the art-mediation context.

 

 

Every work of art is individual, same as each (genomic) DNA is unique. This individuality is or cannot be summarized as a totality in society.

 

 

 

 

1. Ph. Glass, zit. Nach: W. Mertens, 1983, S. 70.

„besteht aus den beiden rhythmischen Bausteinen die in „continuous, regular arithmic progression“zusammenfügt und durch Schläge der Hände auf einen Tisch realisiert werden sollen, ohne dass Glass die mathematische Struktur explizit vorgibt“ (Minimal Music, Ulli Götte, 2002)

2. Morris, “Notes on Sculpture, Part 2”, p. 22; Sylvester and Morris, “A Duologue”, in Compton and Sylvester, Robert Morris, p. 18.

3. Arnheim, Rudolf (1904–2007) German-born Jewish-American media scientist, psychologist and co-founder of the art modern art education.

4. “Hegel’s Science of Logic”, translated by A. V. Miller, George Allen & Unwin, 1969

https://www.marxists.org/reference/archive/hegel/works/hl/hl764.htm#HL3_764

„Mit der Reproduktion, als dem Momente der Einzelheit, setzt sich das Lebendige als wirkliche Individualität, ein sich auf sich beziehendes Fürsichsein, ist aber zugleich reelle Beziehung nach außen, – die Reflexion der Besonderheit oder Irritabilität gegen ein Anderes, gegen die objektive Welt. Der innerhalb des Individuums eingeschlossene Prozeß des Lebens geht in die Beziehung zur vorausgesetzten Objektivität als solcher dadurch über, daß das Individuum, indem es sich als subjektive Totalität setzt, auch das Moment seiner Bestimmtheit als Beziehung auf die Äußerlichkeit zur Totalität wird.“ (Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel, Wissenschaft der Logik, Werke. Band 6, Frankfurt a. M. 1979, S. 474-480.)

4 Semir Zeki (1940–) ist ein britischer Neurobiologe mit Forschungsschwerpunkten im Bereich visuelles Systemvisuelle Wahrnehmung durch das Gehirn sowie neurobiologische Grundlagen der Kunst und Ästhetik. (a British neurobiologist who has specialized in studying the primate visual brain and more recently the neural correlates of affective states, such as the experience of love, desire and beauty that are generated by sensory inputs within the field of neuroesthetics.)

5 Trying to make sense of art

Nature,  August 29, 2002, Vol.418(6909), p.918(2) (Peer Reviewed Journal), Cengange Learning, Inc. ISSN: 0028-0836

6 Abstraction and idealism

Nature, April 6, 2000, Vol.404(6778), p.547(1) (Peer Reviewed Journal), Cengange Learning, Inc. ISSN: 0028-0836

 

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NlzanAw0RP4

From threefoldness to multi-foldness 

Page 2: In der Procedure of Artistic Research (in terms of Morecular Biology (e.g. Mitosis and Cell Division))

On Personal AI in visual arts and its perception in an artwork – What is an artistic authenticity with AI (Technology) in arts?

Introduction

Mein Gedanke in der Einleitung: Die Kunst-Forschung „From threefoldness to multi-foldness“ beginnt mit einer Kontemplation zu der Video-Arbeit „One Motorbike, One Arm, Two Cameras“ (2014) von Ainara Elgoibar, die ich im Jahr 2014 geschrieben habe. Elgoibar hat „a motorbike restored to be a museum piece“ abstrahiert, um ein anderes Image umzusetzen und auf einer anderen Ebene der Objektivität heranzugehen. „an industrial robotic arm programmed to produce the image“ in sich abgeschlossenes Image (weil es 'programmed' ist), ich als Rezipientin, war es eine Vorstellung durch 'robotic arm' aus den 1960er- bis 1970er-Jahren. Dabei gab es einen neuen Blick im 21. Jahrhundert – mit ihren zwei digitalen Canon-Kameras stellen wir heute ein neues Anschauungsbild her. 

Nanay schreibt in seinem Aufsatz „Threefoldness, We see both the picture surface and the depicted object and we see them simultaneously“ – eine Option (iii, B), itself comes in two very different forms. Das Wort depiction bedeutet auf Deutsch ,Darstellung, Abbildung, Beschreibung und Zeichnung‘. Wenn man sich zwei unterschiedliche Bilder aus zwei verschiedenen Perspektiven gleichzeitig anschaut, wie ist es möglich dabei mit unserer optischen Erfahrung - Wahrnehmung?  Wenn Elgoibar auf der bildnerischen Ebene mehr als 'robotnic arm'  konzeptuell gearbeitet hätte, hätte ich mich mehr mit der bildnerischen Ebene auseinandersetzen können. Jedoch war ihr Schwerpunkt der bildnerischen Ebene 'robotic arm' als Vordergrund darzustellen. Dennoch habe ich verstanden, dass ihre Programmierung 'coding' der Kern ihres Konzepts in dieser bildnerischen Darstellung war. Somit habe ich ihre Arbeit als Rezipientin wahrnehmend betrachtet. Dabei wollte ich andeuten, dass das Thema in der zeitgenössischen Musik (Computer music, Experimental music) auf der auditiven Ebene in ihrem Konzept mit den zeitbasierten Medien bis zum Ende der 1990er-Jahre von dem Komponisten ausgearbeitet wurde sowie sich damit auseinandergesetzt, erforscht und die Frage nach Technologie und Humanitie gestellt wurde. (Diagram illustrating the position of CAAC in relation to other Generative music Systems)

Weiterhin habe ich mich mit der Objektivität von AI (Artificial Intelligence) und der Subjektivität von NI (Natural Intelligence) im Kontext meiner Kontemplation „Computerised Motion by the Notion as Visual Composition“ auseinandergesetzt.

 


 

Ich interessiere mich für die problematische Fragestellung in der Wahrnehmungsphilosophie. Außerdem setze ich mich mit der Frage „Was ist das?“ oder „Was bin ich?“ auseinander, die Gott nicht erlaubt hätte. Im 21. Jahrhundert haben es die Wissenschaftler geschafft, diese Frage zu stellen. Dadurch hat sich ein neues Wissensgebiet ergeben, das ich hier neue Kenntnis nenne. Wobei mir es noch fehlt, welche Theorien ich noch erforschen muss, besonders aus der Sicht von Cassirer. Seine Theorien der Renaissance dauern fort, ich folge seiner Theorie von Zeit und Raum. Fast 100 Jahre danach stehe ich ähnlich wie bei Cassirer, bewußt oder unterbewußt ändert sich meine oder von anderer Empfingung der Zeit und des Raumes. Wie nehme ich dieses Phänomen als neuen Fakt zur Kenntnis? 

 

Abschnitt eines Aufsatzes „Threefoldness“ (2017) von Nanay, den zum bildnerischen Konzept der Sehen (seeing in) und Philosophie der Wahrnehmung anspricht, "The distinction between B and C is not entirely new. Robert Hopkins makes a somewhat similar distinction between ‘seeing-in content’ and ‘pictorial content’ (Hopkins 1998, p. 128). But note that Hopkins’s distinction has a much narrower scope—as it was introduced in order to salvage his account of depiction from potential objections (especially from the objection that the picture’s outline shape may resemble more than one depicted objects). See also Abell (2009, pp. 91–92) for a critical analysis of Hopkins’s distinction and Abell (2010, esp. pp. 83ff), where she makes a distinction between internal and external objects that is very similar to the distinction I made here (and where she also talks about the example of black and white photographs). Lambert Wiesing, relying on Husserl, also makes a similar distinction in Wiesing (2009), where he distinguishes between image object and image subject. Wiesing, like me, makes a threefold distinction between the image-carrier, the imageobject and the image-subject. These three entities would roughly correspond to what I call A, B and C: the two-dimensional picture surface, the three-dimensional object visually encoded in the picture and the depicted object. The emphasis of Wiesing’s discussion is the image-object, which has a mere ‘artificial presence’ (Wiesing 2009, p. 35). And this emphasis also helps us to see the differences between my approach and Wiesing’s. Wiesing, again, following Husserl, takes the image-object to be the representation, which represents the image subject and he understands this representation relation as a version of resemblance (Wiesing 2009, pp. 36–38). The image carrier does not represent anything, it merely ‘displays’ the image-object and it is the image-object that does the representing. This is very different from the way pictorial representation is understood in the Wollheimian/Gombrichian tradition (one important exception is Briscoe forthcoming), where it is the picture surface that is taken to be the pictorial representation (see also Kulvicki 2014, pp. 19–20 for discussion).".

Cassirer schrieb das Erkenntnisproblem von „Zeit und Raum“ in der Philosophie und Wissenschaft der neueren Zeit, "In analoger Weise entsteht uns der Gedanke der Zeit, wenn wir die Vorgänge und Veränderungen, die sich vor uns abspielen, nicht nach ihrem Sonderinhalt betrachten, sondern lediglich das Moment des „Nacheinanders“ an ihnen herausheben; die Zeit ist das Phantasma der Bewegung, sofern wir uns in dieser eines „Früher“ oder „Später“ oder einer bestimmten Reihenfolge bewußt werden. So sind denn auch ihre Teile – wie die Stunde, der Tag oder das Jahr – nichts objektiv Vorhandenes, sondern nur die abgekürzten Zeichen für Vergleiche und Rechnungen, die wir in unserem Geiste anstellen: Ihr ganzer Gehalt liegt begründet in einem Akte der Zählung, der nichts anderes ist als seine reine Tätigkeit des Bewußtseins, ein „actus animi“ ist. In dieser Erkenntnis liegt zugleich die Lösung für alle metaphysischen Schwierigkeiten, die man in den Begriffen des Raumes und der Zeit von jeher gefunden hat. Die unendliche Teilbarkeit, wie die unendliche Erstreckung beider birgt jetzt keinen inneren Widerspruch mehr; ist es doch nunmehr klar, daß sie nicht in den Dingen, sondern in unserem Urteil über die Dinge gegründet ist. Jegliche Teilung und Zusammensetzung ist ein Werk des Intellekts. Die einzelnen Zeit- und Raumabschnitte haben keine andere Existenz als diejenige, die sie in unserer Betrachtung besitzen2)Und so sehr jedes gegebene Ganze des Raumes und der Zeit notwendig begrenzt sein muß, so ist doch dem Verfahren, kraft dessen wir willkürlich immer neue Teile unterscheiden und setzen können, keine Schranke gesetzt."(„Raum und Zeit“, Das Erkenntnisproblem in der Philosophie und Wissenschaft der neueren Zeit, Ernst Cassirer,  Berlin: Verlag Bruno Cassirer, 1922, S. 63-64)


Dabei denke ich über Zeit als Ereignis in der Phänomenologie nach.

 

2) A. a. O., § 3–12. – Vgl. Bes. „Examinatio et emendatio Mathematicae Hodiernae“, Dial. 11, p. 39: Divisio est opus intellectus, intellectu facimus partes … l dem ergo est partesfacere, quod partes considerare.“

„In the procedure of artistic research“ ist mein Rückblick bis zum Ende der 1990er-Jahre und meine aktuellen Arbeiten, die Frage nach, worauf ich mit meiner Kunst-Forschung stehe, dass ich mich damit philosophisch und rhizomatisch auseinandergesetzt habe. „Practical exploring“ und „Exploring theoretically“ habe ich dabei meine derzeitigen Themen sowie 'manifoldness' für zukünftige Kunst-Forschung kurz zusammengefasst. Das Thema 'manifoldness' in dieser Kunst-Forschung ist die kreative Denkstruktur in einer Entwicklungsphase.

In einer kreativen Phase frage ich mich, was depiction für Menschen in einer Kreativität bedeutet. 'depiction' ist generell für Menschen 'two foldness' – ein dreidimensionales Objekt auf der zweidimensionalen Fläche darzustellen, d. h. ein fixierter und geschlossener Raum (definiertes und platziertes Bild von oben, unten, rechts und links, das Bild als Vordergrund ist die Anschauung des Objekts) wird gezeichnet, dabei sagt man oft „das ist ,Kreativität‘ der Menschen“.

Ich erforsche im Gegensatz von 'two foldness' als Kreativität der Menschen.

 

Wir leben auf der Erde im Universum, nicht ausßerhalb des Universums.


Alternate classifications in experimental musik

Warren Burt cautions that, as "a combination of leading-edge techniques and a certain exploratory attitude", experimental music requires a broad and inclusive definition, "a series of ands, if you will", encompassing such areas as "Cageian influences and work with low technology and improvisation and sound poetry and linguistics and new instrument building and multimedia and music theatre and work with high technology and community music, among others, when these activities are done with the aim of finding those musics 'we don't like, yet,' [citing Herbert Brün] in a 'problem-seeking environment' [citing Chris Mann]” (Burt 1991, 5).

Benjamin Piekut argues that this "consensus view of experimentalism" is based on an a priori "grouping", rather than asking the question "How have these composers been collected together in the first place, that they can now be the subject of a description?" That is, "for the most part, experimental music studies describes [sic] a category without really explaining it" (Piekut 2008, 2–5). He finds laudable exceptions in the work of David Nicholls and, especially, Amy Beal (Piekut 2008, 5), and concludes from their work that "The fundamental ontological shift that marks experimentalism as an achievement is that from representationalism to performativity", so that "an explanation of experimentalism that already assumes the category it purports to explain is an exercise in metaphysics, not ontology" (Piekut 2008, 7).

Leonard B. Meyer, on the other hand, includes under "experimental music" composers rejected by Nyman, such as Berio, Boulez and Stockhausen, as well as the techniques of "total serialism" (Meyer 1994, 106–107 and 266), holding that "there is no single, or even pre-eminent, experimental music, but rather a plethora of different methods and kinds" (Meyer 1994, 237). 

Metaphysics is the branch of philosophy that examines the fundamental nature of reality, including the relationship[1] between mind and matter, between substance and attribute, and between potentiality and actuality.[2] The word "metaphysics" comes from two Greek words that, together, literally mean "after or behind or among [the study of] the natural". It has been suggested that the term might have been coined by a first century CE editor who assembled various small selections of Aristotle’s works into the treatise we now know by the name Metaphysics (ta meta ta phusika, 'after the Physics ', another of Aristotle's works).[3]

Metaphysics studies questions related to what it is for something to exist and what types of existence there are. Metaphysics seeks to answer, in an abstract and fully general manner, the questions:[4]

  1. What is there?
  2. What is it like?

Topics of metaphysical investigation include existence, objects and their properties, space and time, cause and effect, and possibility.[5]

Statt aus der Perspektive von Dreyfus's (1972) classic critique of traditional computationalism eine Video-Arbeit „One Motorbike, One Arm, Two Cameras“ (2014) von Ainara Elgoibar zu betrachten, habe ich Computerised Motion by the Notion as Visual Composition als Wahrnemung von einer Rezipientin geschrieben.

Digital technology and its system after the digital revolution: Industrial standardization in arts or standardization of artistic products?

I wrote this article Computerised Motion by the Notion as Visual Composition – Contemplation for the video work ‘One Motorbike, One Arm, Two Cameras’ (2014) by Ainara Elgoibar in 2015. In October 2014, I had an inquiry from an editor of a research catalogue if I would be interested in writing a review of the video work ‘One Motorbike, One Arm, Two Cameras’ (2014) by Ainara Elgoibar. I replied that I would. Ainara Elgoibar’s artistic research had been relevant to my research area of technology and humanities in arts for a long time.

 

In this article, two paintings by Gustav Klimt (1862–1918) are very important for the contemplation in terms of a quote of Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel, Science of Logic. One is »Death of Life« (1908–1916, allegorical painting, Art Nouveau, oil on canvas) and the second one is »Fredericke Maria Beer« (1916, portrait, Art Nouveau, Japonism, oil on canvas). Therefore I think of op. 13 Friede auf Erden für gemischten Chor a cappella (1907) by Anord Schönberg (1874–1951). The Vienna Secession and The Second Viennese School were the starting point of my art research in Europe in 1989. At that time, other important historical aspects in fine arts for the study of contemporary art to me was the Bauhaus and DADA in Germany.

 

"- - There is also a terrifying example from the area around the Bauhaus for the connection between rationality of modernity and the systematics of destruction: Canadian historian van Pelt revealed that the dimpled Bauhaus graduate Fritz Ertl was involved in the planning of the Auschwitz concentration camp. - - Many of the designers were able to adapt well to the new system, even if they were 'private' opponents of the National Socialists, such as Wilhelm Wagenfeld, who was extremely successful as a designer as the artistic director of the United Lausitzer Glasswerke (glas works/plants), or Herbert Bayer, similar to them, the head of the Berlin advertising agency Dorland is deemed to be. Among the students were a number of resistors from the communist milieu, of whom the photographer Willi Jungabend and the KPD member Josef Knau are to be particularly remembered. Jungabend was murdered in the Zuchthaus, Brandenburg in 1944. " (Catalog The Bauhaus Collection, Bauhaus Archive Berlin: Museum for Design, 2010, p.174)1




1.  "– – Für den Zusammenhang ziwschen Rationalität der Moderne und der Systematik der Vernichtung gibt es auch aus dem Umkreis des Bauhauses ein erschreckendes Beispiel: Der kanadischer Historiker van Pelt deckte auf, dass der dimplomierte Bauhauseabsolvent Fritz Ertl an den Plannungen des KZ Auschwitz beteiligt war. – – Viele der Designer konnten sich gut in das neue System einpassen, auch wenn sie »privat« Gegner der Nationalsozialisten waren. So Wilhelm Wagenfeld, der als künstlerischer Leiter der Vereinigten Lausitzer Glaswerke überaus erfolgreich als Designer wirkte, oder Herbert Bayer, für den ähnliches als Leiter der Berliner Werbeagentur Dorland gilt. Unter den Studenten waren einige Wiederständler aus kommunistischen Milieu, von denen hier besonders an den Fotografen Willi Jungmittag und das KPD-Mitglied Josef Knau erinnert werden soll. Jungmittag ist 1944 im Zuchthaus Brandenburg ermordet." (Katalog Die Sammlung Bauhaus, Bauhaus-Archiv Berlin: Museum für Gestaltung, 2010, S.174)


Rethinking Robotics:

By the early 1990s, work in computational intelligence had started to explore ways of generating intelligent action in robots that shortly became known as the embodied approach to robotics. In a pair of papers Rodney Brooks (1991a, 1991b) had presented a general and accessible overview of a new kind of intelligent computational architecture, subsumption architecture, that was representation-lite and world-driven. In these respects, it departed from the representation-crunching intensive traditional views of planning and decision-making that had characterized classic AI and was characterized by Brooks as providing “intelligence without representation”. Together with computational work by Agre and Chapman (1987) and Suchman (1987), Brooks's approach suggested a view of computational intelligence in which control was governed bottom-up by behavior and interaction with the world, rather than by plentiful and often complicated internal algorithms and representations.

The sweep of work in reactive or behavior-based robotics, and its identification as marking a part of the embodied cognitive science, was heralded in Andy Clark's Being There: Putting Mind, World, and Body Back Together (1997). Clark here provided an integrative framework for a wide-range of emerging work on embodiment in the cognitive sciences. The big idea in Being There, one with lasting impact in embodied cognitive science, is that minds are not for thinking, traditionally conceived, but for doing, for getting things done in the world in real time. Rather than developing “walking encyclopedias”, robotics in the late 1980s and early 1990s was starting to focus on the dynamic interaction between body and world. Clark drew out affinities between this shift in the conception of intelligent action in computational systems and the emergence of the idea that cognition was scaffolded, embedded, and extended.

The work we have briefly recounted so far all concerns what we called cognition in the narrow sense, processes like human memory, categorization, and language processing (Lakoff and Johnson), human and nonhuman color categorization (Varela, Thompson, and Rosch), and decision-making and planning in robots and robotic systems (Clark). But embodied cognitive science aims to encompass cognition broadly construed. To convey the flavor of early work here, we briefly consider the work of James Gibson on perception, and Esther Thelen and Linda Smith (1994) on infant walking and reaching behaviors (cf. Shapiro 2011).

Tonal in op. 13 Friede auf Erden für gemischten Chor a cappella (1907) by Anord Schönberg was likely wind on earth, bacause of unharmonious variations by characteristical human voices without instrument and dramatic mise-en-scène.

-> to start the contemporary performing arts and visual arts in the culture philosophy.

In the visual art, I'm not sure that artists understand the metaphysics and the ontology really. In the contemporary music, the composers are writing, but in the contemporary art, the artists don't write on their subject generally.

From twofoldness to multi-foldness 

Subjectivity

Objectivity

A starting point of the contemporary art:

In Klim's idea, a new way of thinking about subjectivity and objectivity was started through Japonism. 

Probably 'contemporary' idea was error in art and music historically, however, it created new sense, if I see it in art and music historically.

 

Artistic research:

N.N-ZWISCHENLIEGEND - A PROGRESSIVE INVESTIGATION INTO ERRORS/EINE FORTLAUFENDE UNTERSUCHUNG ZU FEHLERN

Draft_a


WHAT IS A MUSICAL ERROR?

 

 

 

I. Fragen der Wahrnehmungsphilosophie

 

Eine Einführung in die Philosophie der Wahrnehmung kann mit einer erfreulichen Feststellung beginnen: Die Aufgaben und Absichten der Wahrnehmungsphilosophie lassen sich vergleichsweise einfach beschreiben. Dies ist für philosophische Theorien keineswegs selbstverständlich. Vergleicht man die Wahrnehmungsphilosophie zum Beispiel mit der philosophischen Ästhetik, so stellt man schnell fest, daß innerhalb dieser Disziplin keineswegs unstrittig ist, was denn ihre eigentliche und wichtigste Aufgabe ist. Deshalb dürfte eine Einführung in die Ästhetik – und das gleiche gilt für die philosophische Ethik, die Hermeneutik oder Metaphysik – kaum möglich sein, ohne daß nicht historische Entstehung dieser Disziplin und damit verbundene Entwicklung unterschiedlicher Fragstellungen nachgezeichnet wird. Dieses Problem stellt sich bei der Wahrnehmungsphilosophie nicht.

   Die Wahrnehmungsphilosophie ist keine klassische Teildisziplin der Philosophie. Ähnlich wie im Fall der gegenwärtig viel diskutierten Philosophie der Gerechtigkeit oder der Philosophie des Bildes werden auch die Beiträge zur Philosophie der Wahrnehmung einzig und allein durch die Arbeit an einem systematischen Problem bestimmt. Im Fall der Wahrnehmungsphilosophie läßt sich dieses Problem auf die Frage zuspitzen:Was ist Wahrnehmung? Man stellt unter der Überschrift Philosophie der Wahrnehmung Argumentationen zusammen, die zwar in unterschiedlichen historischen Kontexten und philosophischen Teildisziplinen entstanden sind, aber aus heutiger Sicht doch gemeinsam haben, daß sie Erklärungen geben, was wann und warum als Wahrnehmung bezeichnet werden kann. Die Wahrnehmungsphilosophie erforscht nicht empirische Eigenschaften bestimmter Arten der sinnlichen Wahrnehmung, sondern den Status und die Bedeutung des ganzen Phänomens für den Menschen. Man hat es mit einem dezidierten Grundlagenproblem zu tun: Es wird gefragt, was mit dem Begriff 'Wahrnehmung' überhaupt gemeint ist, wie er sinnvoll und begründet verwendet werden kann und ins besondere, wie sich die Phänomene der Wahrnehmung mit sprachlichen Aussagen widerspruchsfrei beschreiben lassen.  („Einleitung: Philosophie der Wahrnehmung“, Philosophie der Wahrnehmung: Modelle und Reflektionen, Lanbert Wiesing (Hg.), Frankfurt am Main: Shurkamp, 2002)

 

Aesthetics: A very short introduction by Bence Nanay

Aesthetics is a branch of philosophy that explores the nature of art, beauty, and taste. It doesn't just consider traditional artistic experiences such as artworks in a museum or an opera performance, but also everyday experiences such as autumn leaves in the park, or even just the light of the setting sun falling on the kitchen table. It is also about your experience when you choose the shirt you're going to wear today or when you wonder whether you should put more pepper in the soup. Aesthetics is everywhere. It is one of the most important aspects of our life.

In this Very Short Introduction Bence Nanay introduces the field of aesthetics, considering both Western and non-Western aesthetic traditions, and exploring why it is sometimes misunderstood or considered to be too elitist - by artists, musicians, and even philosophers. As Nanay shows, so-called 'high art' has no more claims on aesthetics than sitcoms, tattoos, or punk rock. In fact, the scope of aesthetics extends far wider than that of art, high or low, including much of what we care about in life. It is not the job of aesthetics to tell you which artworks are good and which ones are bad. It is not the job of aesthetics to tell you what experiences are worth having. If an experience is worth having for you, it thereby becomes the subject of aesthetics. This realisation is important, because thinking about aesthetics in this inclusive way opens up new ways of understanding old questions about the social aspect of our aesthetic engagements, and the importance of aesthetic values for our own self. 

Table of Contents:

1: Lost in the museum
2: Sex, drugs, and rock 'n' roll
3: Experience and attention
4: Aesthetics and the self
5: Aesthetics and the other
6: Aesthetics and life
7: Global aesthetics
Further reading
Index

Exploring from the aspect of

- philosophical issue

- aesthetical issue

- neuroscientific isseu

AI (artificial intelligence) and NI (natural intelligence)

Interaction between

- What is Artificial Intelligence? in contrast to the natural intelligence.

- How is AI used?

Applications of artificial intelligence

Artificial intelligence, defined as intelligence exhibited by machines, has many applications in today's society. More specifically, it is Weak AI, the form of AI where programs are developed to perform specific tasks, that is being utilized for a wide range of activities including medical diagnosis, electronic trading platforms, robot control, and remote sensing. AI has been used to develop and advance numerous fields and industries, including finance, healthcare, education, transportation, and more. 

- Where is AI used?

At the hospital

At the airport

At the school

At the factory

At the theatre

At the concert hall

etc.

My artistic experience with autism in Berlin is a project at UdK Berlin in the early of 90's and at the end of 90's, my video performance „Drei bewegte Figuren“ (1998-1999, VHS/DV, Avid-Editing, Erika Matsunami) in a collaboration with the Theater Thikwà e.V. in Berlin.

- What is difference between deep-learning and learning essentially?

 

Chromosomensatz bezeichnet in der Genetik von Eukaryoten den Bestand an Chromosomen im Zellkern einer Zelle

Werden die Chromosomen einer eukaryoten Zelle genauer untersucht und miteinander verglichen, so finden sich oft Chromosomen von gleicher Größe, die auch homologe Gene enthalten. Liegen im Zellkern jeweils zwei solcher einander entsprechenden homologen Chromosomen vor, so hat die Zelle einen zweifachen Chromosomensatz (2n); dies wird als diploidbezeichnet. Beim Menschen wie den meisten Wirbeltieren ist dieser Zustand in den meisten Körperzellen gegeben, sie haben einen zweifachen Chromosomensatz. Beim Menschen sind dies insgesamt 46 Chromosomen: jeweils zwei Exemplare von Chromosom 1, von Chromosom 2 und so weiter bis Chromosom 22 (44 Autosomen) und zwei Geschlechtschromosomen (2 Gonosomen), nämlich zwei X-Chromosomen bei weiblichen oder ein X- und ein Y-Chromosom bei männlichen. 

Menschliche Keimzellen dagegen haben einen einfachen Chromosomensatz (1n), sie sind haploid, da die Zahl der Chromosomen pro Zelle durch die Reduktionsteilung in der Meiose halbiert wurde. Ein einfacher menschlicher Chromosomensatz besteht aus 23 Chromosomen (n = 23), nämlich einem Chromosom 1, einem Chromosom 2 und so weiter bis Chromosom 22 und einem Geschlechtschromosom, also dem X-Chromosom oder dem Y-Chromosom.

Objectivity of AI and Subjectivity of NI


Subjectivity is a central philosophical concept, related to consciousness, agency, personhood, reality, and truth, which has been variously defined by sources. Three common definitions include that subjectivity is the quality or condition of:

  • Something being a subject, narrowly meaning an individual who possesses conscious experiences, such as perspectives, feelings, beliefs, and desires.[1]
  • Something being a subject, broadly meaning an entity that has agency, meaning that it acts upon or wields power over some other entity (an object).[2]
  • Some information, idea, situation, or physical thing considered true only from the perspective of a subject or subjects.

These various definitions of subjectivity are sometimes joined together in philosophy. The term is most commonly used as an explanation for that which influences, informs, and biases people's judgments about truth or reality; it is the collection of the perceptions, experiences, expectations, and personal or cultural understanding of, and beliefs about, an external phenomenon, that are specific to a subject.

 

Subjectivity is contrasted to the philosophy of objectivity, which is described as a view of truth or reality that is free of any individual's biases, interpretations, feelings, and imaginings.[1]

Grundsätzlich kann Mensch nicht philosophische "Objektivität" für die totale Welt schaffen.

Struktur des Universums-> I agree with this graph on time, space and body.

Schönberg and Klimt were on the path of contemporary art. They were not Modernists. (reverse from modernism such as rationality of modernity, on the subject of Subjectivity and Objectivity in Art.) Klimt's Japonism is also in the subject of subjectivity and objectivity in art, such as art without godhood: awareness, autonomy, emotion, naturalization and humanity.

 

There are many different types of robotic workshops for children and young people in free time at the culture centres today. 

Which system is operated by AI in the field of the robotic engineering1today. - Self-analysis

 

1. Robotics Engineering is a field of engineering which deals with the construction, design, application and operation of robots. Robotics Engineering is an interdisciplinary branch of electrical engineering & mechanical engineering.

Phenomenology

Finally by way of recent historical anchoring, the idea that an understanding of the body underpins the very possibility of experience has roots in the phenomenological works of Edmund Husserl (1913, 1931), Maurice Merleau-Ponty (1945), and Jean-Paul Sartre (1943), roots we saw acknowledged by Varela, Thompson, and Rosch in The Embodied Mind. This earlier continental tradition was explored constructively early on within artificial intelligence, with special reference to Heidegger, by Winograd and Flores (1986) and also formed the backdrop to Dreyfus's (1972) classic critique of traditional computationalism.

Embodied cognitive science pushes phenomenological accounts in new directions. It seeks not so much to understand how physicality opens up the experience of the self, the world and the others, but rather aims to specify the mechanisms that explain just how cognition is grounded in, and deeply constrained by, the bodily nature of cognitive agency. We shall not explore the convergence between the early phenomenological tradition and embodied cognitive science, although we recognize that phenomenological insights can be an indispensable resource for the ongoing investigation of consciousness, self-consciousness, action and intersubjectivity (see Gallagher 2009; Gallagher and Zahavi 2008; Thompson 2007; Gallagher 2005; Wheeler 2005).

Artistic research: spatial installation “Les coloris” for the sound (random) composition and its performance (2012–2014)

- An interactive spatial installation with the three–four distance measuring sensors (Measuring distance: 100 to 550 cm) and feedback (a microphone was installed outside the room or in the room) for 5 ch discrete sound.

Dimension of space: h. 3.8 m x w. 5 m x d. 7 m

This installation was built with the great help of a colleague.

 

This idea was the “multimodality” of different elements as a happenstance performance, such as elements of noise, language, movement and sound, which was generated by the computer or through the movement the computer generated through those elements. – an idea for Assemblage.

The size of this corner room was 84 m2 and there were two doors (two entrances). The audience could move freely. Therefore the audience could stay and listen without seeing what was happening on the floor or the audience could move into the room (space) to see or join in with the happening. Another idea was a performance in the corridor, between sound composition and/or performance and/or action.

 

I'd like to create a space, but I don't want to make a machine, it's not my artistic area (Artist means today, it's possible to work for and in different areas. The research fields of art overlap many and varied. Art and Technology, if artist has no enough scientific knowledge, its art work would be a goods. Such as Artist Duchamp, he had dealt with his artistic goods in his idea of performativity. In particular, in the research of art and technology today, artist and philosopher as well aesthetician are required to comprehend the neuroscience on the level of the medicine. As hobby, everyone can do it, but as research on the professional level, it is in a research area of art for a collective research.). At the same time, the stage at the theatre or the concert hall is spectacular, but it doesn't make sense for the creation of something to me. I need the condition of the nature. I first performed on the stage when I was four years old, so I know what the theatre space is. My artistic research area and its approach are continually in terms of philosophy of perception and neuroaesthetics in art and aesthetics.

 

I had a problem in this art research; the installation with sensors worked perfectly, but I still had to resolve the system if I had to present phenomenologically ... This means that  the developing of a device is required from me.
In art, if an installation works perfectly, then the installation is not an artwork, it's a machine or a device. Therefore in the arts, the device should represent the artistic or philosophical concept. My idea for artistic research is for musical and visual performativity in one certain condition and in the subject of “multimodality” – on human life and its nature.


Finally, I came back to the artistic research. I appreciate op. 13 Friede auf Erden für gemischten Chor a cappella (1907) by Arnold Schönberg more than a created machine, even it is sophisticated. His twelve-tone technique was a really great idea, especially for a choir (on Language: Its Character and Atonality, in my artistic research, this subject is in terms of the project e.g. Transformation #02, Les coloris.). If I honestly, I can say that NI is more interesting than AI, it's life. But if I could discover something in a situation by AI (as experience), then AI would give me new or profound thoughts. With this installation, I dealt with the topic of random, chance (Zufall), etc. I tried many variants, of course I thought about the philosophical and mathematical level of random and also random in a performance by AI (Interaction). In the result of this artistic research, I have understood at least what algorithm is and could be. Therefore I continue to explore in the context of PhD artistic research. On serialism and minimalism, I comprise in „in the procedure of artistic research".

On multimodality in Music, I have interest in researching on some of singer-songwritings by the Beatles in regards with the aesthetics of everyday life in the Anglo-american philosophy, where the aesthetics is mainly in the twentieth century, although Beckett's is rather on human nature and its law.

The problem of problem-solving with old alogrithmic system:

It means the combination in the dual system such as correct or incorrect and the combination of its option.

The algorithm today is in the manifold system and its dynamics by the multisensory (at the NASA level).

The result of this art research was important for me to understand the process of algorithm in experience.

Embodiment Thesis: Many features of cognition are embodied in that they are deeply dependent upon characteristics of the physical body of an agent, such that the agent's beyond-the-brain body plays a significant causal role, or a physically constitutive role, in that agent's cognitive processing. 

Harmony

 Using: Digital Camera DSLR and DSLM with APS-C 

Ich trage mich selbst, Erika Matsunami, Digital Photography, Doppelbelichtung/double exposure, self-timer, for a Choreography, 2017

Without computer effect and without post-processing


I memorize "ich" in the time-position of a few seconds before, and I play with the memory of "ich". Without reflection of my own action, I self-photographed my everyday behavior and attitude for the choreography of further performance.

 

In terms of dance research which I explored, for example 'attitude' from the perspective of ethics (such as body and mind) in Western and Asian choreography. Ethics in dance, I think that is on body and mind in the environment (nature), therefore dance with music was a ritual. In the contemporary dance of the environment, there is such as the subject of 'society', whose choreography is not for ritual. Therefore choreographic contemporary time is as a Vorstellung (idea), such as in music composition, computer-generated music, and music improvisation. 

Research subject Attention in the cognitive neuroscience. (Reference: „The Varieties of Attention“, Cognition Sixth Edition, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2016, pp. 88–123)

 

The condition of these figurative pictures (anonymous) are same clothing, same person, and different hairstyles and different movements.

Objektivität:

Without a human eye, nevertheless, how camera focus on the object.

Erkenntnistheorie

Ästhetik

Choreography on Harmony and Yin and Yang/陰陽

'Communication' is one of the most important subjects in contemporary art. In this artistc research, I attempt, how I communicate in principle of mine (such as mind).

Communication not only means the relationship with the audience or customer. 

The meaning of 'communication' was totally different compared with today's understanding.

 

Yin and Yang/陰陽

Kinesthetic memory

Depending upon memory systems the kinesthetic learners respond differently. The different kinds of learners mainly include whole body learners, hands-on learners, doodlers, students learning through emotional experiences. The learning and the memory is generally short term. To achieve a long term memory different techniques can be used depending on the learning style. Mind mapping, story mapping, webbing, drawing can be used to enhance the learning of a doodler. For the hands-on learner, role play, clay, building and math manipulative can be used. The whole book body learner can learn better through role-playing, body mapping, puzzles and use of computer technology which allows for certain movement while learning. Students can be engaged in group activities and activities which involve bodily movement such as dance, drama, sports can be used to nurture their learning. The following strategies can be used to facilitate kinesthetic memory through procedural motor pathway such as:

The kinesthetic learners who have memories associated with emotions learning can be facilitated through dance, debatedramarole-play, and charades. This kind of learning leads to a long-term memory since it is associated with emotions such as excitementcuriosityangerdisappointment and success.[8]

Subjektvität:

Attitude

Emotion

Intentional and unintentional by a person

 

For this research, using AI is optimal. Because Human's intention is more for 'Attention' by Human.

The developing of the conceptual desgin and the exploring of the logic for an assemblage as informative art:

 

Three types of attention

- Different movements 'Attitude'

memory

cultural such as habitus

personal such as emotion

 

Appearance

Haircolor -> Genetic or Artificial

Hairstyle -> Fashion and Social roll or ethnological

 

- The focus by AI (Zufall

Research question:

How does the attention change in a picture using by AI without Human eyes?

Extraordinary -> Lighting

What means 'emotion' in a choreography?

What is 'emotion' in a choreography?

'emotion' in the contemporary, it isn't expressed in passionately such as classical choreography.

Artifical Intelligence: The "Intelligence" of computer programs designed to solve problems in ways that resemble human approaches to problem-solving.

In this project, the Figures are by a person, there are thereby differences which are not associative, due to without algorithmic producing and my research foucs.

Digital Camera DSLR and DSLM with APS-C is a photographic camera system with AI.

Associative hierarchy: The idea that the associations used for problem-solving are arranged in a hierarchy, and that creative poeple not only have more associations than most, but have them arraged in "flatter" hierarchies; thus they are more likely than most to recognized alternative possibilities. (Cognition Sixth Edition, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2016, p. 438)

The history of the neurobiology is since a long time and it was in every culture. It is sure that Dance was healing in many cultures. 'Body and Mind' is a subject of human since a long time and in every culture. In doing so, I researched the history of the neurobiology, and finally the thesis of Zeki.->

Artistic research: on Logic for an assemblage as informative art

What is today's sensor?

Zeki claims in his essay on the influence of “abstraction” in the memory system on the brain and with reference to philosophy its “idealism” from the neurological aspect that: “Abstraction is also imposed on the brain by the limitations of its memory system, since it does away with the need to recall every detail. (...) Abstraction leads naturally to the formation of ideals. Plato used the term ‘ideal’ to mean a universal – derived from the intellect alone – as opposed to the particular, derived from sensory experience. Because memory of the particular fades, the ideal built by the brain from many particulars becomes the only real thing about which we can have knowledge, much as Plato and Kant believed.7

2 The Limits of Classical Probability Theory

The axioms of Kolmogorov constitute the basis of the received view of probability theory.

2.1 Classical probability functions

The set of atomic outcomes, Ω, is called the ‘sample space’; the σ-algebra on Ω, 𝔄A, is called the ‘event space’. The following set of axioms is equivalent to those presented by Kolmogorov ([1956]):

(...)

 

Adding this last axiom to the previous ones is equivalent to requiring ‘countable additivity’ or ‘σ-additivity’.

The triple Ω,𝔄,PK⟨Ω,A,PK⟩ is called a ‘classical’ probability space. Classical probability theory is mathematically coherent and useful. The existence of models for the axioms proves its consistency and the wide range of applications by physicists, engineers, and economists shows its usefulness in modelling situations in the physical world. Nonetheless, there are probabilistic scenarios involving infinite sample spaces that cannot be described in a satisfactory manner in terms of probability functions that are governed by Kolmogorov’s axioms. (Infinitesimal Probabilities,Vieri BenciLeon HorstenSylvia Wenmackers , The British Journal for the Philosophy of Science, Volume 69, Issue 2, June 2018, Pages 509–552, https://doi.org/10.1093/bjps/axw013, Published:11 August 2016)

The Idea of Plato and Kant was very simple, but it was for Human in the intellectual level very difficult to understand as amicable solution. Bacause human substantiateed subjective 'I' in mind as objective. 

 

Today's Mirror (Widerspiegelung) -'reflexion' for own body as self-awareness, such as MRI-'scan' by high technology is used for medical examination and explanation today. The responsibility for and the right of own body are the contemporary idea for 'body'. Is it biological understanding about own body as self-awareness through data?

A research question: How is  philosophical term of 'reflexion' changing in the procedure from analog to digital today?

Exploring 'self-awareness' - body and mind in terms of the actual contemporary science (biology, neuroscience and medicine) for human-being (well-being) in art.

What is ‘well-being'? This question is an existential and as well as about human being.

Trans-culture:

It is usual today to grow up with two or three cultures (languages), thereby the originality is one 'myself'.

Nowadays, 'culture' doesn't mean at the national level, but rather at the individual level.

According to Hegel: “With reproduction as the moment of individuality, the living being posits itself as an actual individuality, a self-related being-for-self; but at the same time it is a real relation outwards, the reflection of particularity or irritability towards an other, towards the objective world. The process of life, which is enclosed within the individual, passes over into a relation to the presupposed objectivity as such, in consequence of the fact that when the individual posits itself as a subjective totality, the moment of its determinateness as a relation to externality becomes a totality as well” (Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel, Science of Logic).4

Culture is a word for the 'way of life' of groups of people, meaning the way they do things. Different groups may have different cultures. A culture is passed on to the next generation by learning, whereas genetics are passed on by heredity. Culture is seen in people's writing, religion, music, clothes, cooking, and in what they do. 

The concept of culture is very complicated, and the word has many meanings.[1] The word 'culture' is most commonly used in three ways.

Most broadly, 'culture' includes all human phenomena which are not purely results of human genetics. The discipline which investigates cultures is called anthropology, though many other disciplines play a part.

Transculturalism is defined as "seeing oneself in the other".[1] Transcultural (pronunciation: trans kul′c̸hər əl or tranz kul′c̸hər əl)[2] is in turn described as "extending through all human cultures"[2] or "involving, encompassing, or combining elements of more than one culture".[3]