Exposition

The Prolonged Touch: Finger Pedaling and Legatissimo in Classical and Early Romantic Piano Music (2020)

Blake Proehl
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About this exposition

The term prolonged touch comes from Carl Czerny and is synonymous with finger pedaling, legatissimo, overlegato, and, in some cases, legato. This was a common technique used by the early pianists who took it out of the practices of harpsichord, clavichord, and organ playing. Its use in piano music declined during the Romantic period and beyond, due to the development of the piano and its sound, the advancement of damper pedal technique, and a more "literal” reading of notation. My research aims to understand how and where in music the prolonged touch was used in Classical and early Romantic piano music. Passages describing this technique were found in treatises and works by C. P. E. Bach, Türk, Milchmeyer, Adam, Hummel, Moscheles, Czerny, and more. From these passages, I examined the ways the aforementioned composers notated or indicated the use of this technique in their compositions. Next, based on what the treatises tell, I organized categories of musical applications of the prolonged touch. And then I gave examples from piano literature to further illustrate their use within each category. Finally, I demonstrated my artistic use of the prolonged touch in Mozart’s Sonata in F major, K. 332.
typeresearch exposition
keywordsplaying techniques, piano, legatissimo, legato, Instruments & Techniques
date24/02/2020
published15/06/2020
last modified15/06/2020
statuspublished
share statusprivate
copyright-
licenseAll rights reserved
urlhttps://www.researchcatalogue.net/view/539727/539728
published inKC Research Portal
portal issue1. Master Research Projects


Simple Media

id name copyright license
637201 Mozart K. 498 I mm.62-68 NMA All rights reserved
637202 Mozart K. 498 III 58-66 NMA All rights reserved
637204 Mozart K 498 III mm.1-4 NMA All rights reserved
637261 Beethoven Op. 5, No. 2, mvt 1, mm 22-23 Breitkopf und Hartel All rights reserved
730184 Pauer art of pianoforte playing 14 legatissimo touch pd All rights reserved
730185 Mozart 332 I 84-92 NMA All rights reserved
730186 Mozart 332 I 48-59 NMA All rights reserved
730188 Mozart 332 I 33-34 NMA All rights reserved
730190 Mozart 332 I 23-24 NMA All rights reserved
730192 Mozart 332 I 1-4 NMA All rights reserved
730193 Kohler 249 35 etude pd All rights reserved
730195 Kohler 249 p 22 etude pd All rights reserved
730197 Kohler op 249 p 22 pd All rights reserved
730204 Moscheles Op. 70 4 BW pd All rights reserved
730206 Rigler 53 pd All rights reserved
730207 Turk 345 pd All rights reserved
730210 Hummel pt 2 p. 2 pd All rights reserved
730211 bach probestucken son3 mov2 p.9 pd All rights reserved
730213 Bach probestucken sonata 6 mov 2 p. 18 pd All rights reserved
730215 Bach tab 6 examples pd All rights reserved
730216 Czerny op 500 p1 186 pd All rights reserved
730217 Fetis chordal fp 9 pd All rights reserved
730218 Fetis melody fp 9 pd All rights reserved
730220 Hummel pt 2 p69 pd All rights reserved
730222 Hummel pt 2 p 67 pd All rights reserved
730225 Engel p. 64 pd All rights reserved
730228 Rowland Adams p. 50 rowland All rights reserved
730231 Rowland Adams p. 49 rowland All rights reserved
730232 Milchmeyer legato pd All rights reserved
730234 Hummel pt3p60 ex16 pd All rights reserved
730237 Hummel pt3p60 ex15 pd All rights reserved
730239 Hummel pt3p60 ex14 pd All rights reserved
730242 czerny op500 pt3p21 legatissimo ex pd All rights reserved
730244 czerny op500 pt3p20 example of all types of touch pd All rights reserved
730247 czerny op.500 pt3p19 legatissimo pd All rights reserved
730249 Czerny Op. 500 pt3p19 legatissimo ex pd All rights reserved
730615 Plaidy Legatissimo p4 pd All rights reserved
803294 Figure 1.1. Beethoven's arrangement BP All rights reserved
803339 Figure 1.2. Hummel's arrangement, mm. 8-14 BP All rights reserved
803348 Figure 1.3. Czerny's arrangement, mm. 6-15 BP All rights reserved
803373 Figure 1.4. Hermann's arrangement, mm. 8-14 BP All rights reserved
803391 Figure 1.5. Rösler's arrangement, mm. 6-17 BP All rights reserved
803396 Figure 1.6 Winkler's arrangement, mm. 6-15 BP All rights reserved
803485 Figure 2.1. Bach, Sonata VI, movt. 2, mm. 1-8 BP All rights reserved
803533 Figure 2.2. Moscheles' French style notation BP All rights reserved
803548 Figure 2.2. Moscheles' French style notation BP All rights reserved
803566 Figure 2.3. Pauer’s French style notation BP All rights reserved
803588 Figure 2.4. Bach’s slurred prolonged touch example BP All rights reserved
803604 Figure 2.4. Rigler’s slurred prolonged touch example BP All rights reserved
803618 Figure 2.5. Türk’s slurred prolonged touch BP All rights reserved
803630 Figure 2.6. Milchmeyer’s legato usage BP All rights reserved
803640 Figure 2.7. Adam’s slurred prolonged touch in sixteenths BP All rights reserved
803650 Figure 2.8. Adam’s slurred prolonged touch in triplets BP All rights reserved
803690 Czerny op 500 p1 186 BP All rights reserved
803707 Czerny op. 335 p.8 legatissimo BP All rights reserved
803713 Figure 2.11. Brahms’ simplified French notation, mm. 1-4 BP All rights reserved
803744 Figure 3.1.1 Bach, Sonata III, movt. 3, mm. 1-8 BP All rights reserved
803768 Figure 3.1.2. Cramer etude 15, mm.1-2 BP All rights reserved
803776 Figure 3.1.6. Czerny’s legatissimo in Op. 500, pt. 3 BP All rights reserved
803807 Figure 3.1.4. Czerny and quick arpeggio chords BP All rights reserved
803820 Figure 3.1.5. Czenry’s brilliant passage of harmony BP All rights reserved
803831 Figure 3.2.1. Adam forming a melody BP All rights reserved
803842 Figure 3.2.2. Cramer etude 5, mm. 1-3 BP All rights reserved
803865 Figure 3.2.5. Cramer etude 23, mm. 1-2 BP All rights reserved
803867 Figure 3.2.3. Beethoven’s simple notation of Cramer etude 5 BP All rights reserved
803874 Figure 3.2.4. Cramer etude 7, mm. 1-4 BP All rights reserved
803879 Figure 3.2.5. Cramer etude 23, mm. 1-2 BP All rights reserved
803896 Figure 3.2.6. Cramer etude 24, mm. 1-2 BP All rights reserved
803903 Figure 3.2.7. Realization of Beethoven’s instructions for Cramer etude 24
 BP All rights reserved
803916 Figure 3.2.8. Hummel's melodic line in groups of three BP All rights reserved
803929 Figure 3.2.9. Hummel's melodic line in groups of four BP All rights reserved
803939 Figure 3.2.10. Hummel's melodic line in groups of two BP All rights reserved
803952 Figure 3.2.11. Fétis on creating a melody BP All rights reserved
803970 Figure 3.2.12. Czerny on creating musical lines BP All rights reserved
803986 Figure 3.2.13. Czerny's melodic brilliant passage BP All rights reserved
803999 Figure 4.1 K.332, movt. 1, mm. 1-4 BP All rights reserved
804064 Mozart 332 I 23-24 BP All rights reserved
804069 Figure 4.3. K. 332, movt. 1, mm. 33-34 BP All rights reserved
804074 Figure 4.4. K. 332, movt. 1, mm. 48-59 BP All rights reserved
804081 Figure 4.5. K. 332, movt. 1, mm. 84-92 BP All rights reserved
804087 Figure 4.6. K. 332, movt. 2, mm. 1-2 BP All rights reserved
804093 Figure 4.7. K. 332, movt. 3, mm. 31-35 BP All rights reserved
804099 Figure 4.8. K. 332, movt. 3, mm. 48-65 BP All rights reserved
804107 Figure 4.9. K. 332, movt. 3, mm. 12-20 BP All rights reserved
804114 Figure 4.10. K. 332, movt. 3, mm. 112-117 BP All rights reserved
804121 Figure 3.3.1. Hummel short remarks BP All rights reserved
804131 Figure 3.3.2. Exercise chap.1, no. 54 BP All rights reserved
804136 Figure 3.3.3. Exercise chap. 1, no. 95 BP All rights reserved
804142 Figure 3.3.4. Exercise chap.3, no. 107 BP All rights reserved
804150 Figure 3.3.5. chap. 4, no. 64 BP All rights reserved
804157 Figure 3.3.6. Exercise chap. 3, no. 22 BP All rights reserved
804163 Figure 3.3.7 Exercise chap. 3, no. 15 BP All rights reserved
804174 Figure 3.3.8. Dwelling with the thumb on the key BP All rights reserved
804180 Figure 3.3.9. Dwelling with the little finger on the key BP All rights reserved
804192 Figure 3.3.10. Exercise chap. 6, no. 13 BP All rights reserved
804201 Figure 3.3.11 Exercise chap. 6, no. 7 BP All rights reserved
804207 Figure 3.3.12. Exercise chap. 4, no. 76 BP All rights reserved
804217 Figure 3.3.13. Exercise chap. 2, no. 78 BP All rights reserved
804223 Figure 3.3.14. chap. 1, no. 99 BP All rights reserved
804228 Figure 3.3.15. Exercise chap. 4, no. 96 BP All rights reserved
804233 Figure 3.3.16. Exercise chap. 4, no. 69 BP All rights reserved
804238 Figure 3.3.17. Exercise chap. 4, no. 85 BP All rights reserved
804244 Figure 3.3.18. Exercise chap. 2, no. 145 BP All rights reserved
804249 Figure 3.3.19. Exercise chap. 2, no. 244 BP All rights reserved
804254 Figure 3.3.20. Exercise chap. 2, no. 182 BP All rights reserved
804260 Figure 3.3.21. Exercise chap. 2, no. 176 BP All rights reserved
804266 Figure 3.3.22. Exercise chap. 2, no. 158 BP All rights reserved
804275 Figure 3.3.23. Exercise chap. 5, no. 30 BP All rights reserved
804281 Figure 3.3.24. Exercise chap. 5, no 38 BP All rights reserved
804288 Figure 3.3.25. Exercise chap. 5, no. 23 BP All rights reserved
804294 Figure 3.3.26. Exercise chap. 6 no. 46 BP All rights reserved
804303 Figure 3.3.27. Exercise chap. 4, no. 41 BP All rights reserved
804310 Figure 3.3.28 Exercise chap. 7, no. 29 BP All rights reserved
804316 Figure 3.3.29. Exercise chap. 7, no. 45 BP All rights reserved
804322 Figure 3.3.30. Exercise chap. 1, no. 75 BP All rights reserved
804328 Figure 3.3.31. Exercise chap. 4, no. 17 BP All rights reserved
804335 Figure 3.3.32. Exercise chap. 1, no. 94 BP All rights reserved
804340 Figure 3.3.33. Exercise chap. 1, no. 171 BP All rights reserved
804350 Figure 3.3.34. Exercises chap. 2, nos. 224 & 225 BP All rights reserved
804355 Figure 3.3.35. Exercise chap. 7, no. 28 BP All rights reserved
804362 Figure 3.3.36. Exercise chap. 2, no. 204 BP All rights reserved
804369 Figure 3.3.37. Exercise chap. 7, no. 48 BP All rights reserved
807764 Figure 3.1.3. Beethoven’s Sonata in G major, Op. 14, no. 2 BP All rights reserved
807990 Figure 3.2.14. Schubert’s Moments musicaux, D. 780, no. 1, mm. 30-33 BP All rights reserved
807999 Figure 3.2.15. Schubert’s Moments musicaux, D. 780, no. 1, mm. 37-40 BP All rights reserved
808011 Figure 3.2.16. Schubert’s Moments musicaux, D. 780, no. 4, mm. 1-10 BP All rights reserved
808070 Figure 1.7. Engel’s accompanying group BP All rights reserved
808094 Figure 4.6. K. 332, movt. 2, mm. 1-2 BP All rights reserved

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