KC Research Portal

Master Research Projects

All research in KC

CompLex - an OSC and Voltage controlled Signal Path Generator (VC-SPG) (2017 ) Lex van den Broek
This thesis describes my electronic and artistic research into the design of what I have called the Voltage Controlled Signal Path Generator (VC-SPG). It is a switching audio matrix that can both be seen as a new tool, and as a part of a musical-instrument. As we will see, it can be applied in an analogue electronic music studio setup, a modular synthesizer or in an interactive art-installation. This master research project is a continuation of my previous work at the Royal Conservatoire where I design new technology for Art and Education. The fundamental core of my research project is the development of an audio-matrix with 16 inputs and 16 outputs that can be fully configured, controlled and programmed with Open Sound Control (OSC) and that can be synced and triggered with external analogue signals. In its present state the VC-SPG has become a new type of generator that is able to switch between different studio presets and form the core of new audio experiences and new compositional approaches. I will describe and reflect upon both the technical challenges and development and the musical and artistic results shared with me by students and professionals who used the VC-SPG over the last year for their own work. They all experienced the VC-SPG to be adding a new dimension to their creative process. We can conclude that the VC-SPG is not only a new practical tool, but also a creative instrument for electronic-music and art.
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Of Rules and Canons — Raaijmakers' Reflection On Morphology (2017 ) Johan van Kreij
Canon-1 is the first of a serie of five electro-acoustic works by Dick Raaymakers for which the concept 'morphology of sound' formed the principle starting point. Alongside the compositional activities, Raaymakers attempted to systematically describe a theoretical model that allowed him to get grip on the difficult matters relating composing with electronic means. This work fully occupied him from autumn of 1963 until spring of 1966. Not only led this work to a unique serie of compositions, it also laid the foundation for his later works covering the fields of composition, music-theater, installation art and writing. This important work was never well documented or contextualized from the perspective of electro-acoustic composition. Based on the original tapes, Raaymakers' schematics and interviews, this research aims to do that.
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Seventeenth-century cello playing, focussing mainly on bow technique (2017 ) Anne-Linde Visser
Name: Anne-Linde Visser Main Subject: Baroque Cello Research Supervisor: Johannes Boer Title of Research: Seventeenth century (Italian) cello playing, focusing mainly on bow technique Research Question: How can we regain seventeenth century bow-technique for cello repertoire? Summary of Results: My aim for this research was to find out more about 17th century cello playing, with the focus on bow technique. The first cello treatise was not written until 1741 (Corette) and therefore most cellists will play this repertoire with a late 18th century (bow) technique. Repertoire which is written especially for the violoncello starts in the late 17th century, but a lot of this repertoire was still composed in the old style. In short, my research contains the following elements: the bow, the bow-hold, bow-technique and other sources on articulation. The sources used include mainly treatises and iconography (taking into account that not all iconography is appropriate). Iconography shows us that there are a lot of possibilities to play the cello. In terms of bow hold, underhand bow hold is seen the most, but also overhand bow hold can be seen towards the end of the 17th century. The treatises by Sylvestre Ganassi, Riccardo Rognioni and Francesco Frognoni, were my main sources for bow-technique. Ganassi (16th century) already gives some very important ‘rules’ on string-playing that are still applicable today. Written in even greater detail concerning articulation, are the treatises for wind instruments. In my opinion, those treatises are not only valuable for 17th century repertoire, but could be also a source of inspiration for any other repertoire. Biography: Anne-Linde Visser (The Netherlands, 1992) studies baroque cello with Lucia Swarts. Last year she studied with Jonathan Manson at the Royal Academy of Music in London (Erasmus Exchange). Anne-Linde is ‘Young Bach Fellow’ of the Nederlandse Bachvereniging and member of the Theresia Youth Baroque Orchestra (Italy). Besides that, she regularly performs with the Laurenscantorij, Ars Musica and the Dutch Baroque Orchestra. With the Castello Consort she was recently accepted to take part in the Eeemerging-programme. She especially enjoys playing basso continuo, which has been described as ‘excellent’ (Early Music Reviews) and ‘impressive: unobtrusive yet decisive’ (Opera Today).
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Beyond Comfort Zones: The Connection between Metaphor and Pianistic Touch (2018 ) Petra Ruth Alexandry
The use of metaphor is often a catalyst and manifestation of pianists' musical intentions in performance. It conveys how a piece of music might be understood—what it might 'tell' of. In a more practical sense however, these metaphors guide pianists' physical gestures—their tactile connection to the instrument—as they use metaphorical imagery to achieve the desired atmosphere of a musical work. For pianists, tone and touch are key to bringing their musical intentions to life. This research exposition thus investigates the complex connection between metaphor and pianistic touch through a series of experiments in Brahms's Intermezzo Op. 117 no. 1. Here, various metaphors derived from research into the background of the work and its creator were applied, resulting in multiple and differing interpretations—each with its own approach to tone and touch. By examining these varying approaches in light of scientific studies into the connection between metaphor and pianistic touch, we can conclude that metaphors do influence pianists' physical interaction with their instruments, that this interaction is complex but concrete and demonstrable, and that manipulations of this interaction can result in divergent interpretations of a single work. These findings should encourage pianists to develop different approaches to well-known works by experimenting with the application of various metaphors. This would not only expand their expressive and technical capabilities, but also push them to think outside the box and to move away from rigid assumptions about how musical works 'should' sound—which would ultimately contribute to their creative growth as musicians.
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Babylon Quartet: Ghosts, Mirrors, and The River (2017 ) Babylon Quartet
Names: Babylon Quartet: Kellen McDaniel, Danielle Daoukayeva, William McCleish, Leonid Nikishin Main Subject: Chamber Music Research Supervisors: Renee Jonker, Liesbeth Ackermans Title of Research: Babylon Quartet: Ghosts, Mirrors, and The River: A case study in performance and compositional practices of modern electro acoustic music Research Question: What are some of the important challenges faced in creating and performing works which utilize electronics, and what kinds of performance practices and compositional approaches can be used to mitigate and overcome these challenges? Summary of Results: The use of electronics in music composition and performance continues to expand, both in commercially mainstream and artistically niche genres of music. This presents a growing set of demands on classically trained musicians who wish to perform music which uses electronics. This paper is mainly a primary source documentation of performance techniques, challenges and solutions presented by the members of Babylon Quartet in their preparation and performance of an original work for string quartet involving electronics. The piece was written by violist Kellen McDaniel and his brother Marshall McDaniel. It consists of first hand accounts of all four players as well as the two composers, detailing the process of first premiering the work, and then subsequently revising and adapting the work for future performances, as well as relevant technical explanation and documentation. The goal of this research is to provide insight and practical solutions on how some core challenges of electro-acoustic performance can be overcome from both compositional and performance perspectives. Biography: Babylon Quartet is a string quartet based in The Hague. Playing together for the past three years, they have been honored as recipients of Het Kersjesfonds Strijkkwartetstipendium as well as winning first place De Grote Kammermusik Prijs - De Doelen. They consist of violinists Leonid Nikishin (Russia) and Danielle Daoukayeva (Netherlands), violist Kellen McDaniel (USA), and Cellist William McCleish (Canada). Kellen McDaniel and his brother Marshall McDaniel are a composing duo from Los Angeles, California. They have composed works for the concert hall and theater, as well as film and television.
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The Accompaniment for the Villancico in New Spain (2018 ) Miguel Espinoza Chavez
The abstract for this exposition is unfortunately missing.
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Madness in music (2018 ) May Kristin Hegvold
Name: May Kristin Svanholm Hegvold Main Subject: Early Music Singing Research Supervisor: Inês de Avena Braga Title of Research: Madness in music Research Question: How can one, convincingly, portray madness in a musical performance without being considered in a state of madness? Summary of Results: In the 17th century, madness was a relatively common theme in entertainment such as poetry, theatre, and music. There was something that fascinated the people of that time with the uncontrollable nature of madness. Henry Purcell and Thomas d’Urfey was among the many writers and composers who dealt with this subject, and a selection of their mad songs and texts are the main focus of my research. Feelings such as love, hate, envy, sadness and happiness are feelings most of us have felt in our life, but madness is perhaps a state that is exclusive to some people. Is it then possible to portray this state of mind convincingly in a performance of the music? To answer this question, I have examined how madness was portrayed by Purcell and d’Urfey, and generally how people that were considered mad was treated and viewed by the society. After researching the madness of the 17th century and what we today view as madness through music, text, historical documents and other forms of entertainment, I have come to the conclusion that it is possible to portray madness convincingly, but that madness is something completely different than the feelings previously mentioned. One person can view something as madness while someone else sees it as completely normal. Biography: May Kristin Svanholm Hegvold is a soprano from Norway. She did her bachelor's degree at the Conservatoire in Trondheim with professor Elisabeth Meyer-Topsøe, and is now studying for a master's degree in the early music department at the Royal Conservatoire in The Hague, with Rita Dams. May Kristin has participated as a soloist in many productions, including the premieres of two new operas by Norwegian composers, “Pappapermisjon” by Bertil Palmar Johansen and “Kommentarfeltet” by Trygve Brøske. She has also, among other things, been the soloist in Pergolesi’s “Stabat Mater” and sung the roles of Dido, 2nd Woman and 1st Witch from the opera “Dido and Aeneas”. Her latest roles involve Pamina from the opera “Die Zauberflöte” and Piacere from Händels “Il Trionfo del Tempo”.
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Hearing Double: how to use the double bass in the VI Concerti Armonici by Unico Wilhelm van Wassenaer. (2018 ) Eva Euwe
Name: Eva Euwe Main Subject: Violone Research Supervisor: Johannes Boer Title of Research: Hearing Double Research Question: Was the double bass used in the VI Concerti Armonici by Unico Wilhelm Van Wassenaer, and if so, how was it used? Summary of Results: As far as we know, the VI Concerti Armonici by Unico Wilhelm van Wassenaer were written for a chamber music setting with one instrument per part. We do not know which basso continuo instrumentation was intended or preferred by the composer, but it could have been possible that a double bass was to be used. At that time in the Netherlands, double basses and bassists were around and it is not unlikely that they also played in relatively small settings such as chamber music. If the double bass played the basso continuo line in this piece, there are many reasons that it was used in a different way than the more usual 'concerto grosso' style of playing the continuo line. It is also likely that instead of a double bass, a smaller bass instrument in the 8 foot register was used to double the continuo line with. This would be an instrument that is perhaps bigger than most baroque cellos and close to a basse de violon or a G-violone.
To illustrate these possibilities, I have recorded several versions of the same Concerto with different basso continuo instrumentations. Biography: Eva Euwe (Amsterdam, 1988) studies historical double bass and violone with Margaret Urquhart at the Royal Conservatoire of The Hague. She received her Bachelor’s diploma from the Utrecht Conservatory where she studied modern double bass with Quirijn van Regteren Altena. She received masterclasses from world-class bassists such as Joel Quarrington and Edicson Ruiz. 
Alongside her studies, Eva works as a freelance bassist with several ensembles such as De Nieuwe Philharmonie Utrecht, BarokOpera Amsterdam and Música Temprana. She also performs with the Orchestra of the Age of Enlightenment as a participant of the OAE Experience 2018.
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The Philly Joe Jones Rudimental Soloing Style (2017 ) Marios Spyrou
Name: Marios Spyrou Main Subject: Jazz Drums Research Supervisor: Jarmo Hoogendijk Title of Research: The Philly Joe Jones Rudimental Soloing Style Research Question: How can classical exercises be incorporated into jazz improvisations and still sound spontaneous, creative and true to the jazz drumming idiom?  Summary of Results: Before starting this research at the Royal Conservatoire of The Hague, I was not so aware as how to express myself and phrase on the drum set. By studying the history of the instrument, I have found out that all the great jazz drummers have adopted and incorporated the 26 American drum rudiments in their playing, which include several sticking patterns “borrowed” from the classical music and the Swiss Army drum corps. These rudiments are like scales for melodic – instrument players, who have to practice and know them very well in order to gain technique and express themselves on their instruments. The same applies to drummers using these 26 sticking patterns. While I was listening to the great jazz drummers, I discovered that a perfect example for this is Philly Joe Jones. You can clearly hear in his soloing that he is using these rudiments in his own unique way, making them sound swinging and therefore adopting them into the bebop drumming. I therefore decided to take Philly Joe as my main “model” for this research. I started transcribing his solos and analyzing his phrasing, making my own variations and phrases based on this rudimental approach. My final result is that I can know phrase on the drums and express myself freely whenever I have to take a solo, without copying or playing standard phrases from jazz drummers like I used to do in the past, while still sounding authentic and true to the jazz drumming style. Biography: Marios Spyrou was born in Nicosia in 1990. He was inspired by from an early age by his father, who is also a jazz drummer. At the age of 19 he enrolled in University of Nicosia from where he graduated. There he met the great Cypriot saxophonist Charis Ioannou and started being interested in Jazz music. He attended the Bicommunal Jazz Program seminars in Cyprus led by the great New York Jazz virtuosos Ari Roland, Chris Byars and other well-known Jazz musicians. While attending these seminars, Marios was influenced by the jazz drummer Keith Balla who introduced him into the world of bebop style. In 2015 he moved to The Hague, where he is currently studying with the legendary jazz drummer Eric Ineke. On May 2015 he won the second price of the 1st Apollon Jazz competition in Greece with the Cypriot jazz band BopCy.
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Intentional Listening (2018 ) Rachel Mills
Name: Rachel Mills

Main Subject: Classical Cello

Research Supervisor: Stefan Petrovic

Title of Research: Intentional Listening

Research Question: How does listening to recordings while learning a piece affect one’s artistic interpretation?

Summary of Results:
Since beginning my masters, I have been intrigued with the concept of finding personal interpretations for the pieces I play. However, I found that when confronted with a standard take on a piece, I would doubt the legitimacy and effectivity of my own ideas. As a result, my research aimed to discover ways for myself and other studying musicians to find individuality in their music. Because the ease of access to recordings is such an important influence for musicians, this research focuses on how students can refer to recordings without allowing them to override personal creativity.
The resulting research emphasizes the importance of intention, both in consulting recordings and in creating takes that one believes in. I have identified five ways to use recordings to help one determine a reason for consulting them. In addition, I have discovered a process of recording myself and intentionally listening to these recordings with a focus on my interpretation’s effectiveness. It is my hope that these processes will also work as a suggestion for other advance music students working towards discovering their artistic identity.

Biography:
Rachel Mills is pursuing a master degree at the Royal Conservatoire of The Hague where she studies with Jan Ype Nota and Michel Strauss. A native of New York State, she received her bachelors from Oberlin Conservatory in Ohio under Amir Eldan. While at Oberlin, Mills performed both as a soloist and with her quartet on multiple honors recitals and collaborated on recording projects with the Contemporary Music Ensemble, Oberlin Orchestra, and Sinfoniette. She has frequently sat principle cellist in student ensembles, including the New York State All-State Orchestra and on the Oberlin Orchestra’s most recent tour to Chicago’s Symphony Center.  Mills has also participated in advanced and fellowship chamber music programs across the United States. In addition to her studies, Mills is passionate about finding ways to inspire young people to engage with classical music. In doing so, she thrice traveled to Panama to teach and perform in connection with the National Music Association there.
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Monteverdi and the architecture of emotions (2018 ) Anabela Marcos
Name: Anabela Marcos Main Subject: Singing Research supervisors: Johannes Boer and Erwin Roebroeks Title of Research: Monteverdi and the architecture of emotions Research Question: In what way could the formal and the expressive elements in Monteverdi's music be related to painting and architecture of his contemporaries? Summary of results: In the preface of his Eighth Book of Madrigals, Madrigali Guerrieri et Amorosi, Claudio Monteverdi announced one of the fundaments of his musical construction: the power of the contrasting passions. The humanist theme, that inspired not only musicians but also poets, painters and architects of the time, into a common goal; the expression of the human emotions. The research “Architecture of emotions”, is centred in Monteverdi’s music in the period starting from his Lamento d’ Arianna (1608) to the Lamento della Ninfa included in the Eight Book of Madrigals (1638) - the same time, thirty years, that it takes Francesco Borromini to finish the small church of San Carlo alle Quattro Fontane in Rome, in what will be his first (the interior) and his last commission (the façade). Inspired in this extraordinary building, which is both a guide and structure to the musical ideas presented, and supported by a selection of Caravaggio’s paintings to be the visual counterpart to Monteverdi’s music, this research aims to be a possible and personal interpretation to the vast question of the relation between music, painting and architecture in the context of the humanist environment in the transition from Renaissance to Baroque in Italy. Biography: After working as an architect for several years, the Portuguese Soprano Anabela Marcos, was granted a full scholarship from the Gulbenkian Foundation of Lisbon to study Singing and Opera at the Royal Conservatoire in the Hague, the Netherlands, with Rita Dams, Diane Forlano and Marius van Altena. Her opera repertoire includes Pamina (Die Zauberflöte, Mozart), Suzanna (Le Nozze de Figaro, Mozart), Zerlina (Don Giovanni, Mozart), Titania (Midsummer Night’s Dream, Britten), Clori (L’Egisto, Cavalli), Venus and Cupid (King Arthur, Purcell), Daphne (Apollo and Daphne, Händel), Belinda (Dido and Aeneas, Purcell). As a soloist, Anabela has worked with conductors such as Ton Koopman, Jos van Veldhoven, Sigiswald Kuyken, Michel Corboz and she is a member of the Baroque ensemble La Primavera. Among her future projects is the new program “Architecture of emotions”, included in the 25th jubilee of this ensemble and based on her two year research around Monteverdi’s music.
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Violin Baroque Pieces on Soprano Saxophone (2018 ) Benjamin Falces Vaquero
Name: José Benjamín Falces Vaquero Main Subject: Classical Saxophone Research Supervisor: Jarmo Hoogendijk Title of Research: Baroque Violin Pieces on Soprano Saxophone; Transcription of Caprice No. 26 for Violin Solo by Pietro Locatelli Research Question: How should a baroque violin piece be transcribed and played on a soprano saxophone? Summary of Results: There are so many baroque pieces for violin which have been transcribed for soprano saxophone, but there are even more performances of these pieces by almost all classical saxophonists. The reason is that saxophonists often need to improve their repertoire and that these pieces were already frequently transcribed during the period which were made. Also, there have been many saxophonists who have thought that this instrument can give something special to these kinds of works. Based on interviews, questionnaires, comparison of baroque transcriptions and my own experience documented through the whole process of a transcription, this research investigates what is the best way to transcribe and play violin baroque pieces for soprano saxophone. My main conclusion is when writing for these arrangements it is allowed to make many modifications from the original version but always depending on the characteristics of the instrument and the baroque transcription criteria and keeping the original intention of the composer. These results will give the saxophone world more sources of how to transcribe and play these pieces, keeping in mind the original idea of the composer in the baroque style and making it more useful for the instrument. Biography: José Benjamín Falces Vaquero has had lessons with teachers like Vincent David, Ensemble Squillante, Berlage Saxophone Quartet, Arno Bornkamp and others. He won national prizes in Torrent, Xativa and Lliria. He now collaborates with a few Young Orchestras: JOGV, IYPO and ORSAXCOVA. In 2017 he received a Scholarship from the Government of Valencia. As a jazz performer he has had lessons with teachers such as Perico Sambeat, Jerry Bergonzi, Bob Mintzer, Gregory Fritze, and recorded a CD with Big Band Talleres Sedajazz.
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Creating open form scores for improvising musicians (2018 ) Cynthie van Eijden
Abstract This research aims to explore and develop an updated approach to "open form" in music. "Open form" is traditionally referred to as "aleatoric music": a score is provided but the composer has left some choices open. The term "aleatoric" music implies that chance determines how to fill the open spaces. The renewed approach in this research however aims to provide a score in which a performer as an improviser or co-composer is invited to shape the music according to his own opinion. The score provides a plan and context for improvised content and, in doing so, invites the performer to co-create the piece. The research developed in three phases. In the first phase, improvisation was used as a learning tool in music theory classes. Different approaches to improvisation were studied and practiced. In the second phase, one group of musicians evolved from an improvisation course and went on a tour of five concerts. For them an open form score was created in order to provide context to the improvisations of the musicians. This composition is called View from a high mountain, a composition in six parts that allows improvisation at several moments. In the third phase, findings from the outcome and performance of View from a high mountain caused a renewal of the approach in the classroom. Through this renewal the boundary between education and musical production became a thinner line that allowed several cross-overs. Instead of a handbook containing a method or exercises or a new open form score The Improvisation Tree was created. The Improvisation Tree is a model that can be used as a help for creating, analyzing, categorizing and comparing open form scores.
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The Development of the Performer's Role in Karlheinz Stockhausen's Piano Works (2018 ) Ellen Corver
I have had the enormous privilege to meet the composer Karlheinz Stockhausen in 1982 at the Royal Conservatoire in The Hague. In the context of a month-long festival around his music I had, at the time being a first-year piano student, the opportunity to play his first four Klavierstücke for him, and this, apart from being a very inspiring experience for me, resulted in a close cooperation that lasted for 20 years. During these years I worked with him on all his piano works, including Mantra, and performed them many times on different occasions, almost always in the presence of Stockhausen himself. In 1997–1998 I recorded all the solo piano pieces on the composer’s label. During those years I was asked quite a few times, either by someone from the audience or by students that I taught during masterclasses, if I expected these pieces to become part of the “canon of piano music” in fifty years from then. At that time, being so involved in the piano pieces and probably not having the necessary distance to reflect on this question, I always answered the question in the affirmative. So, it came as quite a shock to me when I started to notice a change by myself in relation to the piano pieces, at least to some of them. Normally, the more and longer I work on a piece the more I get attached to it, but now I started to realise that I got more and more detached from some of the pieces, up until the point that I didn’t want to play them anymore. However, other piano pieces remained very dear to me, and this up until today. In short, it seemed that within 20 years I had unconsciously made my own ‘canon’ with regard to Stockhausen’s piano pieces. What I find intriguing about this experience is to find out what the reason is for this enormous difference in appreciation for the works of one composer. Why am I sure that some piano works of Stockhausen will still be played many years from now while, in my opinion, other works will fade? Can I put a finger on differences between the pieces which can justify this? And if I can find something to justify this for Stockhausen’s Klavierstücke, could this also be valid for works by other composers?
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The Voice of the Chalumeau (2018 ) Sandra Perez Romero
Name: Sandra P. Pérez Romero Main Subject: Historical Clarinet Research Supervisor: Inês de Avena Braga Title of Research: The Voice of the Chalumeau: A historical study of music for various sizes of chalumeaux and voice in the Holy Roman Empire and the Republic of Venice 1703-1767 Research Question: What was the importance of the chalumeau in XVIII century vocal music in the Holy Roman Empire and the Republic of Venice? Summary of Results: The chalumeau is a single reed woodwind instrument whose development lies between the recorder and the clarinet. It was used extensively as an obbligato instrument in vocal repertoire throughout the eighteenth century, when it was a highly popular instrument in the major courts in Europe. The vocal repertoire that included chalumeau from this time period – as this work aimed to illustrate – is quite large and diverse. It accounts for several hundreds of pieces and it encompasses a wide range of genres, all with unique instrumentation. The development of the repertoire for chalumeau was directly linked to three Holy Roman Emperors and the political milieu in the Hofkapelle in Vienna during the first half of the eighteenth century. Besides Vienna, the chalumeau was extremely popular in other courts such as Dresden, Hamburg and Darmstadt; the latter proved to be an extremely fertile land for chalumeau writing with Johann Christoph Graupner, who included parts for different sizes of chalumeaux in more than eighty cantatas. Other prolific composers for chalumeau include Atilio Ariosti, the brothers Giovanni and Antonio Maria Bononcini, Antonio Caldara, Francesco Bartolomeo Conti, Johann Joseph Fux, Johann Adolph Hasse, Johann David Heinichen, Giovanni Alberto Ristori, Johann Franz Strall, Georg Philipp Telemann, Antonio Vivaldi, among others. After a thorough search through RISM (Répertoire International des Sources Musicales) and other online library catalogues, a total of 203 vocal works that include one or more parts for chalumeaux is presented in this thesis. Performance practice and general considerations on the style of this repertoire are addressed as well, with emphasis on the genres of Cantata, Opera, Oratorio and Serenata, but also Antiphonies, Hymns, Litanies, Masses, Psalms and other sacred works that employed the instrument as well. In addition, this research has resulted in several world premiere recordings of music by Hasse and Caldara. Finally, considerations on the “gloom” color often associated with the chalumeau in secondary sources are contrasted with the descriptions of the instrument in primary sources and the evidence present in the works composed outside Vienna. Biography: Sandra Pérez Romero (b.1992) is a Mexican born historical clarinetist. In 2015, she graduated Cum Laude from the Music Bachelor in Universidad Veracruzana (Mexico), under the supervision of Juan Manuel Solís (clarinet) and Ricardo Miranda (Musicology). She has collaborated with several orchestras in Mexico both as an active member and as a soloist and she has participated in clarinet and chamber music festivals in North America and Europe.
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The Can of Norms: Expanding the Modern Lute Plucking Technique (2018 ) Talitha Witmer
Name: Talitha Cumi Witmer Main Subject: Lute/Theorbo Research Supervisor: Bart van Oort Title of Research: The Can of Norms: Expanding the Modern Lute Plucking Technique Research Question: Can “Thumb-out,” a historical lute technique in common use following the late Renaissance period, become favored by lutenists today? Summary of Results: After its revival in the 20th century, much has been discovered about the lute and its technique. One issue that is recently placed on the agenda of lutenists is the plucking technique applied on lutes. It is a known fact that Thumb-out was the technique applied most commonly for lute playing. Yet, very few lutenists adopt this Thumb-out technique today. Modern lute tutors tend to advise to avoid Thumb-out. If not, they advise to pluck around the rossete, and position their thumb close to the index finger. In paintings and treatises, however, we see Thumb-out hand with thumb positioned away from the index while the hand is placed around the bridge, and Thumb-out hand placed around the rosette, the former more often. I delved into this technique for 3 years and have come to understand that this “forgotten Thumb-out” is as matter of fact a technique that can be very beneficial for lute players, opening new, colorful, historical and healthy possibilities. Biography: The American-Korean lutenist, Talitha Cumi Witmer, started her musical studies at age 4 with church choir and piano. When she was 9 she heard a lute on a CD and immediately fell in love with its sound. Her dream to study the lute was then realized at the age of 13, when she began her formal studies on the instrument in Tokyo. Since 2011 she studies the lute under Joachim Held, and the theorbo under Mike Fentross since 2012. She performs both as a continuo player and a soloist, in Austria, Belgium, Germany, Italy, Japan, Latvia, Netherlands, and Portugal.
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From publisher to public (2018 ) Tim Brackman
The influence of publishers on the interpretation of contemporary violin performance practise. This research will show us how publishers profile themselves in the world of music. Besides it learns us about violinists' habits when choosing an edition to play from. Based on questionnaires and interviews from different point of views, this research will come with a conclusion provided with ideas and insights that are usable when the moment is there that you need a new score.
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Building Bridges Between the Modern Composer and Classically Trained Singer (2018 ) Georgi Sztojanov
Name: Georgi Sztojanov Main Subject: Classical Singing Research Supervisor: Anna Scott, Yannis Kyriakides Title of Research: Building a Bridge Between the Contemporary Composer and Classically-Trained Singer Research Question: How can the aesthetic oxymoron between the wishes of modern composers and the needs of singers be mediated or resolved, and what changes could be made on both sides in order to achieve a more fruitful relationship, resulting in compositions that are both singable and that explore the voice's potential beyond its Classical boundaries? Summary of Results: As a case study, I document the process of learning the tenor solo in Louis Andriessen's De Materie, and discuss how my classical training helped me to sing this demanding part even though it is not meant to be sung with a Romantic sound. After discussing two further projects in which I acted as a mediator between composers and singers, I found my initial suspicions to be true: many composers do not receive enough education in composing for the voice, meaning that they do not respect its physical limitations, they often misjudge the combination of ranges, dynamics and colors possible, and they believe that any singer can reproduce any sound (regardless of culture, style, or tradition). Clearly, studying these elements while working closely with singers would be one solution, as would choosing a more performer-centric notational system including expression markings and other indications that invite singers to find the intention or subtext behind the music—all of which can help the singer's instrument work more effectively. For their part, singers need more training in music theory, solfege and score reading skills, and while they need to master their classical technique, they must also be openminded and flexible enough to experiment beyond that training—while staying within the healthy limits of their sound production, and knowing how to communicate in order to preserve these boundaries. This study helped me to successfully mediate between composer-singer collaborators, and I hope to turn my findings into a booklet for those looking to create beautiful and exciting new vocal works together—not in spite of one another. Biography: Georgi Sztojanov has two MAs in composition from the Liszt Academy in Budapest and The Royal Conservatoire of The Hague. He obtained his BA in singing in 2016 with Sasja Hunnego. As both singer and composer he has broad experience with vocal premieres, multidisciplinary collaborative works, and leading ensembles and festivals. He received the Tenso Young Composers Award in 2014. As a composer he has a wide spectrum of works, and as a singer his activities are equally diverse, ranging from opera to lied, numerous premieres, staged productions, and ensemble singing (recently as a member of Groot Omroepkoor).
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Deliver the meaning - Performance expression in a physical shape (2018 ) Martje van damme
Name: Martje van Damme Main Subject: Classical Piano Research Supervisor: Stefan Petrovic Title of Research: Deliver the meaning – Performance expression in a physical shape Research Question: How are physical movements related to the expression in music?   Summary of Results: During a performance I am aware of the meaning and ideas of the music and as a pianist I aim to deliver that meaning to the audience. The physical movements of the performer also have a strong influence on the way that meaning is perceived by the listeners. One of my main aims is to achieve a unity between my physical movements and expression, as well as a certain freedom and flexibility of my physical approach to piano playing. Over the course of this research I conducted experiments with various excerpts of the pieces I play, all of which represent a significant transition within the piece. These experiments gave me a good overview of what the influence of the physical movement is in relation to the expression and perception of a performance. What I observed from these experiments, reflecting on my aims, is that moving out of my comfort zone and expressing the meaning of the music, also by more exaggerated physical movements, made me feel free. It helped me discover new possibilities of playing and interpreting the music. Secondly, I realised that, by embedding musical ideas in my physical movements, technically challenging passages were not that difficult anymore. They became subservient to the musical ideas and character of the music. Thirdly, the exaggeration of physical movements sometimes created breathing space on very different spots compared to my usual way of playing. In these moments, I suddenly became more flexible. Finally, this process made me aware of the fact that my personal experience and the perception of the audience often differ widely. As a result of this inquiry, I am now more aware of the opportunities to express ideas that lead to a convincing performance. Biography: Martje van Damme was born in Kampen, the Netherlands. She began her piano studies at the age of nine. In 2006, she enrolled into the “Academie voor Muzikaal Talent” in Utrecht, studying with Henk Ekkel. She took part in the Sommercourse Musik Zentral in Bad Aussee, Austria, several times. In 2011 she was participant during the Perpetuum Mobile Competition in Hilversum, where she won the second prize. She has participated in masterclasses from Martyn van den Hoek, David Kuyken, Klára Würtz, Andreas Woyke, Kamilla Bystrova, Helen Grizos and Dmitri Paperno. She has completed her BMus, studying with Paolo Giacometti at the Robert Schumann Musikhochschule in Düsseldorf. Together with the mezzo-soprano Eva Marti, she twice won the third prize during the Schmolz und Bickenbach Chambermusic Competition. She participated during the URIM (liedduo masterclasses) in Brussels and received lessons from Anne Sofie von Otter, Christianne Stotijn, Eildert Beeftink and Julius Drake. Currently she is pursuing her master’s degree with David Kuyken at the Royal Conservatoire in The Hague.
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The Music of Johann Rudolph Ahle (2018 ) Jacob Gramit
Name: Jacob Gramit Main Subject: Early Music Singing Research Supervisor: Kathryn Cok Title of Research: The Music of Johann Rudolph Ahle: Editorial and Performance Issues Surrounding the 1658 Neu-Gepflanzter Thüringischer Lustgarten Research Question: How can creating a critical-performance edition of the music of Johann Rudolph Ahle impact my performance of his music? Summary of Results: Having always been drawn to German Music of the seventeenth century, I found a collection of music from Johann Rudolph Ahle (1623-1673) that was largely unknown and unperformed. This enabled me to start from nothing when creating an edition and researching Ahle's life and music; meaning I could see what effect the process would have on my performance. By doing detailed research into a specific collection, looking at both his compositional style and his use of pre-existing texts and music, I discovered Ahle's seeming fascination with personal spirituality, leading to new ideas for the performance of his music. Biography: Originally from Edmonton Canada, Jacob Gramit is currently living in the Netherlands, pursuing a Master’s Degree in The Hague, studying with Pascal Bertin, Peter Kooij, Dorothee Mields, Robin Blaze, and Lenie van den Heuvel. Recently, he both prepared the edition and performed in Michael Chance’s production of Cavalli’s Giasone, and upcoming projects include Handel’s Dixit Dominus with Holland Baroque and Cappella Amsterdam. Before moving abroad, Jacob lived in Vancouver, where he still performs - most recently he performed in the 2017 Vancouver Bach Festival, and coordinated the Summer Festival of Sacred Music at Christ Church Cathedral, which he will return to run in 2018. He attended the University of British Columbia (BMus, 2012), and sang for three seasons with musica intima, a professional and self-directed vocal ensemble.
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Dancing About Music (2016 ) Isa Goldschmeding
Name: Isa Goldschmeding Main subject: Violin Research supervisor: Dr. Anna Scott Title: Dancing About Music Research Question: How does consciously moving while playing help to interpret and communicate a piece of music? Summary of Results: Using movement is the most natural and direct way with which people express themselves. Elaborate research has been done on the connection between movement (gesture) and intention (meaning) in spoken language. The same principles and findings in these studies can be applied to movement and its connection to music. The method described in my case study, in which I studied Lera Auerbach’s Lonely Suite for violin solo while focusing on my body’s impulses, makes use of this instinctual way of showing what we feel, and therefore leads to a sincere and convincing interpretation. In so doing, this process can be very clarifying for a performer. Based on my research into the available background literature I can conclude that there is much to be gained by using conscious movement while learning and performing a piece of music. Indeed, various authors repeatedly emphasize the importance of this subject for musicians, and their hope that it will be further researched and developed within the context of musical performance. By way of my case study, I have indeed found that using movement provides a new approach to learning a piece of music and to developing a personal, sincere, and honest interpretation. Emerging from the unconscious, I strongly believe that an interpretation that has been reached through movement will translate strongest to a given audience. The background sources surveyed have also proven the value of a movement-based approach for audiences. In addition to the obvious benefits for the performer as related to musical meaning and expression, benefits that are then shared by the audience, there is also the visual aspect of this approach to performing music with conscious movements: an aspect that is of great value when connecting, sharing, and communicating with audiences. Biography: Isa Goldschmeding studied with Axel Strauss at the San Francisco Conservatory of Music and with Theodora Geraets and Ilona Sie Dhian Ho at the Royal Conservatoire in The Hague. She participated in masterclasses with Theo Olof, Philippe Graffin, Stephan Picard, Isabelle van Keulen and the Osiris Trio. Isa enjoys playing chamber music, and has a special interest in contemporary music. In 2014 she was one of the instrumental soloists in Vivier’s opera Kopernikus with the Dutch National Opera. She played with Asko|Schönberg, Ensemble Klang, Rosa Ensemble, Residentie Orkest and Nieuwe Philharmonie Utrecht and is a member of the young, The Hague based ensemble Kluster5.
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European Female Wind Band Composers and Their Works (2018 ) Renata Silva Oliveira
Name: Renata Oliveira Main Subject: Wind Band Conducting Research Supervisors: Anna Scott, André Granjo Title of Research: European Female Wind Band Composers and Their Works Research Question: Can shedding new light on women composers’ contributions to the wind band and ensemble repertoire via the creation of a catalogue, the preparation of a critical edition, and the commission of a new work, help to encourage more Portuguese women to compose for this medium? Summary of Results: In Portugal, as far as it is possible to assess, only two established women composers have written works for wind band or large wind ensemble: Berta Alves de Sousa, who composed Porto Heróico in 1943, and Maria de Lourdes Martins, who composed Rapsódia de Natal, Rondó and Suite de Danças Tradicionais Portuguesas in 1978. In a country with an important tradition of wind band musical practice, it seems strange that so few women composers have used this medium to convey their musical ideas. In order to put the production of female composers for this medium in perspective, I researched relevant works from as many European female composers as possible. Ultimately, the hope was to better understand their outputs for wind band, to promote their works, and to make way for a new composition for wind band from a female Portuguese composer. This project has three main outcomes: 1) an online and physical catalogue of virtually all European female composers who have written for wind ensemble, including biographical data, a list of their works, and statistical analyses of their personal data (by age, country, type of ensemble); 2) a critical edition of Berta Alves de Sousa's Porto Heróico manuscript; and 3) my commissioned work for wind band O Soldado da Misarela by Anne Victorino d’Almeida. At the end of this project I can answer yes to the question of whether shedding new light on this field can encourage more female Portuguese composers to write for wind band. Biography: Renata Oliveira is a Portuguese conductor. She began her orchestra conducting studies with Jean-Marc Burfin and later with Jean-Sebastien Béreau. In conducting masterclasses Renata has worked with: Jose Pascual-Vilaplana, Kenneth Kiesler, Jean-Sebastien Béreau, Ernst Schelle, Robert Houlihan, Felix Hauswirth, Jan Cober and Douglas Bostock. She holds a Masters in Psychology and a Masters in Orchestra Conducting. She is conductor of two Portuguese wind bands, and is responsible for their associated music schools. Renata simultaneously studies Wind Band Conducting with Alex Schillings at the Royal Conservatoire of The Hague and a Masters in Music Teaching (Wind Band Conducting specialisation) at the University of Aveiro.
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To bow, or not to bow (2018 ) Alexandra Lopez Arca
Name: Alexandra López Arca Main Subject: Classical Violin Research supervisor: Liesbeth Ackermans Title of Research: To bow, or not to bow. Modern bow vs. baroque bow: comparisons and inspirations Research Questions: To what extent do the shape and construction of the bow affect the violinist’s sound and to what extent do her/his use of the bow and musical choices influence the sound? What can a modern violinist learn from experimenting with a baroque bow? What are aspects of the evolution of the violin bow, its use and the evolution of right hand technique from the 18th century until now that are essential to be aware of when playing with both modern and baroque bow? Summary of Results: The bow is the soul of the violin. Playing with different bows alters our sound. Their shape and construction affect the articulation that we naturally get with them. This fact tells us a lot about the music for which they were built, and we can learn from it in a natural way. But when a violinist is only familiarised with a modern bow, the learning process with an old bow can hardly take place. It is better to know what the characteristics of each bow are and experimenting with them in order to get used to them. After having this experience, different attacks, articulations and nuances will emerge and facilitate the music for which every bow was thought. It is interesting to see how the sources from those times show us the musical value of the different possibilities of the old bow. Nevertheless, if the musical idea the violinist has in mind does not match the old bow’s natural behavior and the indications made for its use, using it would not bring any advantage. After an overview of the evolution of the bow and its relation with the right hand technique, I will explore the possibility of combining a modern instrument with an old bow as well as the benefits of using it for playing, especially when used following the indications the sources of that period reveal. Biography: Born in Santiago de Compostela, she finished her bachelor’s degree at the Escola Superior de Música de Catalunya before moving to The Hague, where she studies with Vera Beths. Since her years in Barcelona, she has developed a special interest for early music performance practice, stimulated by her lessons with Alba Roca and Lorenzo Coppola, and with Walter Reiter in the Royal Conservatoire.
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Alkan's Concerto op. 39 (2018 ) Gerard Bouwhuis
The French composer Charles Valentin Alkan (1813-1888) was a major pianist and composer. Alkan’s life was characterized by long periods of isolation and, when combined with his modest and rather shy nature, is probably the reason why his music, right up to the present day, has never gained much recognition. I chose to conduct my research using the longest and most challenging piece he wrote for piano as regards musicality and technique: the Concerto Op. 39, étude 8 from The Twelve Etudes in Minor Keys. The main question I asked in my research was: how can I best perform this piece? 
Alkan narrowly missed being appointed head of the piano department of the Conservatoire in Paris and, although he had many private pupils, very little remained about how his work should be performed. The objective of my research is twofold. 
First, I wanted to study the piece, and I also wanted to perform it. I have submitted my registration of a performance of the piece as part of this research. 
The second objective was to devise something akin to a ‘manual’, which could help other students learning how to play this piece, and which would give insight into the way I approached playing it. The manual shows the score in its entirety with annotations visible in certain places, which contain relevant information. This information consist of audio recordings, video clips, texts or exemplary notes and is related to everything in the context of the performance.

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EXTRA-MUSICAL SYSTEMS IN MUSIC: THEIR IMPLEMENTATION IN CONTEMPORARY MUSIC IN THE CONTEXT OF MULTIMEDIA (2016 ) Andrius Arutiunian
The purpose of this research is to define methods of applying extra-musical and data-based systems in multimedia music works. The first part of the paper concentrates on the outline of the motivation and reasoning for using extra-musical systems from a composer's or sound artist's perspective and gives a historical precedent context. Parallels are drawn together with contemporary art and art critique examples. The second part of the research outlines the possible modes of the data-based systems application by analysing multiple multimedia works by composers or sound artists written in the last two decades including a piece by the author of the paper. The types of multimedia and its connection to sound are discussed, the conceptual deconstruction and its semiotic implications of the data used are analysed. The given conceptual and semantic context is applied for analysing the musical parameters and data's usage in sound control. Each of the pieces discussed outlines a particular mode of the conceptuality towards the extra-musical system usage and functions as a primal device for further conclusions drawn. The final part of the research consists of the general overview of the conclusions drawn and attempts to establish a general outline of the motivation and the resulting outcome behind the usage of the extra-musical systems in multimedia works.
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Investigating smaller bassoons from the XVIII and XIX centuries, with practical performance on a Baroque fagottino (2017 ) Hugo Rodriguez Arteaga
Name: Hugo Rodríguez Arteaga Main Subject: Baroque Bassoon Research Supervisor: Johannes Boer Title of Research: Investigating smaller bassoons from the XVIII and XIX centuries, with practical performance on a Baroque fagottino Research Question: Is there a (lost) tradition using these instruments in the XVIII and XIX centuries? What are the musical and technical advantages and disadvantages of performing a piece with fagottino? Summary of Results: The idea of this study was to collect information about smaller-sized bassoons found in the XVIII and XIX centuries. Berlioz talks about the "quint bassoon", and other "fagottino" in his treatise about orchestration, and smaller bassoons called "tenor", "octave", and "quart" are described in James Kopp's book, The Bassoon. Today the modern "fagottino" is used to teach children, as the modern bassoon is too big and too heavy, but historical models have been strangely ignored in early music performance practice. Is there a (lost) tradition using these instruments in the XVIII and XIX centuries? What are the musical and technical advantages and disadvantages of performing a piece with fagottino? This research project is a mixed work: the written part has background information about instruments, titles and performers. A description of practical experimentation approaching one work with fagottino, as well as the observation of a young player’s first confrontation with the instrument is included. Biography: Hugo Rodríguez Arteaga began studying bassoon in Santa Cruz de Tenerife, Spain, in 1999 with Prof. Maximiano Vera. In 2007 he started studies at the Conservatorio Superior de Canarias with Ana Sánchez Clemente and finished with honors. He has played in ensembles as Orchestra of the 18th Century, Die Kölner Akademie, MusicAEterna, Capella Cracoviensis, Lutherse Bach Orchester, Les Vents Atlantiques, Orquesta Sinfónica de Galicia, Vox Luminis and more several groups. He has worked together with such conductors as Frans Brüggen, Teodor Currentzis, James Coonlon, Rinaldo Alessandrini, Alfredo Bernardini, Marcus Creed, Kenneth Montgomery, Alessandro de Marchi, Michael Alexander Willems and Pietro Rizzo. Currently he is studying historical bassoons at the Royal Conservatoire in The Hague with Donna Agrell, as well as orchestral conducting with Kenneth Montgomery, Alex Schillings and Jac van Steen. He is active as a historical and modern bassoonist with different period and symphony orchestras all over Europe.
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The characters of the flute. A performer’s exploration of the dramatic roles of the baroque flute (2017 ) Maria Florencia Gomez
Before the flute's ascension to rival the violin and harpsichord in repertoire and expressive character, its first defined soloistic role emanated from music in the reign of Louis XIV. Iconography and collections of allegories, circulated in Europe since Cesare Ripa's Iconologia´s first edition in 1590, depicted the flute with two distinct figures. In the first, the flute symbolises the sweetening of the human voice in vital persuasion, while the second related to the art of pleasing. These artistic representations influenced the composer's choices for the flute, from keys and tempi to specific technical requirements. It must follow, then, that there is a strong link between the dramatic or allegoric content of the pieces in question and the technical and expressive identity of the late Sixteenth Century and early Eighteenth Century flute. This paper addresses this phenomenon through the French Cantate, with a primary focus on A. Camprá and N. Clérambault, in addition to further context of stylistic influence in subsequent compositions.
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The art of auditioning (2017 ) Janet Krause
ABSTRACT Main subject: Violin Research Supervisors: Kathryn Cok Martine van der Loo Title of Research: The Art of Auditioning Research Question: What aspects should be considered in preparation for a successful violin audition? Summary of Results: An orchestral audition, and specifically to this paper, a violin audition, is possibly the least musically satisfying experience of one’s life. However, it is a necessary part of the path leading to a fulfilling life as an orchestral musician. The preparation for an audition certainly has specific aspects which need to be considered. This paper discusses these aspects, based in large part on my experiences as a Principal in The Hague Philharmonic and as a committee member at auditions for many years. As a violin and chamber music teacher as well as the teacher of the orchestral classes at the conservatoires in The Hague and Amsterdam, I have collected a wealth of experience training students to be successful at auditions. Besides the aspects of how to apply for an orchestral audition, which repertoire needs to be prepared, (including many orchestral excerpts which I have bowed and provided with fingerings myself), how to prepare effectively and what to expect on the actual audition day, there is a large section devoted to the research I have performed concerning mental and physical preparation. Developing mental skills to withstand the stress associated with auditions is an important part of audition preparation. Finally, I have researched, by means of a series of questions online and live and Skype interviews, how experts and candidates experience auditions. This has put me in contact with leaders of orchestras from around the world. How the two groups have responded to similar questions has put me in the position to draw some conclusions as to what committees expect at auditions and how this differs from the candidates’ viewpoints. In analyzing this research, and recognizing similarities in what I written from my own research and personal experience, I am able to draw some conclusions and make recommendations about how candidates could prepare better and be more successful at auditions. Biography: Janet Krause is Principal Second Violinist in The Hague Philharmonic and also a violin, chamber music and orchestral studies teacher at The Royal Conservatoire in The Hague. She is also teaching orchestral studies at the Conservatoire in Amsterdam. Born in Canada, she completed her Bachelor of Music in Performance at the University of Toronto, having studied with Lorand Fenyves. Moving to the Netherlands, she completed her solo-diploma at the Conservatory in Amsterdam, studying with Davina van Wely. She was a member of the Salzburger Solisten for many years and. primarius of the Dufy Quartet. Presently she is also Principal of the Solistes Européens in Luxembourg.
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From Aural Teaching to Musical Literacy in the Elementary Horn Class (2017 ) Klaske de Haan
Name: Klaske de Haan Main Subject: Master Music Education According to the Kodály concept. Research Supervisors: Suzanne Konings and Herman Jeurissen Title of research: From Aural Teaching to Musical Literacy in the Elementary Horn Class First steps to a Kodály inspired horn method. Research Question: How to develop a methodology for the beginning horn player, from an aural approach to musical literacy? Summary of Results: The Netherlands and Germany are almost the only countries where children start playing the B flat horn instead of the F horn because of the rich culture of wind bans. There are almost no horn methods based on the harmonics of the B flat horn. The traditional instrumental music lesson is mainly based on reproducing: a certain image on paper matches a fitting fingering thus producing the matching sound. When the sound is not matching the image than the teacher corrects this sound. I noticed that the children could play well when playing by themselves, but when they played together with other instruments they could easily play the whole phrase on the wrong pitch (wrong harmonics) but with the right fingerings. The horn is an instrument based on harmonic overtone series. Finding the logical steps on the valves of the horn is very difficult. Woodwind players have a logical system on the instrument playing diatonic series like do re mi. For the horn, with 3 valves, there is not a logical sequence playing diatonic series. This made me realize that some changes in the methodology are necessary for the horn to make an aural approach more logical for the beginning horn player. It also did me realize how extremely important it is for the young horn player to develop the inner hearing very well and make the logical steps from sound to symbol. My research paper investigates the possibilities to develop musical literacy in the horn lesson but also in the instrumental group lesson with transposing instruments. My main conclusion is that it is very important to make singing and moving a part of the horn lesson in order to develop inner hearing in relation to the horn. In that way the music will be understand and musical literacy can be developed. Biography: Klaske de Haan studied horn at The Royal Conservatoire in The Hague and at the Fontys Conservatoire in Tilburg with Herman Jeurissen. She graduated in 2000 for her diploma Uitvoerend Musicus. As a free lance horn player Klaske worked with several professional orchestras in the Netherlands for example The Residentie Orchestra. Klaske is a horn teacher at the Music school, Scholen in de Kunst, in Amersfoort and she works at the Royal Conservatoire at The Hague with BASIS. A new music program for young wind players. From 2014 Klaske specializes in Music education and pedagogy by attending several course such as “muziek als vak”.
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The Mental Effect of the (Temporary) Tonic: a study of tones in jazz tunes through John Curwen's Tonic Sol-fa (2017 ) Patricia Wisse
Name: Patricia Wisse Main Subject: Music Education according to the Kodály Concept Research Supervisors: Suzanne Konings & Ab Schaap Title of Research: The Mental Effect of the (Temporary) Tonic: a study of tones in jazz tunes through John Curwen's Tonic Sol-fa Research Supervisor: Suzanne Konings, Ab Schaap Research Question: How can Tonic Sol-fa be used in dealing with (temporary) tonics in short musical forms, such as the 32-bar jazz standard? Summary of Results:: In general, the level of musicianship of (jazz) singers is considered to lag far behind that of their instrumentalist classmates. Are singers somehow not as musical? Or not as interested? Is something different in the approach? Or is the approach not different enough? Looking at what is really needed to be able to improvise in a jazz context, and approaching this through John Curwen¹s Tonic Sol-fa method, this research is an exploration of a vocal and mental alternative to the pianistic approach of vocal improvisation, that is true to our musical experience. Biography: Patricia Wisse studied Theology in Leiden, and then Jazz Voice at Codarts Rotterdam. In 2015 she started her studies at the Royal Conservatoire: Music Education according to the Kodály Concept. Through studying the work of John Curwen, she has developed her own approach in studying and teaching jazz. She has also developed a new music learning tool, the Movable Do Disc, and is continuously developing ideas and methods around it.
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Adapting live classical music performance for different venues (2017 ) Gregor Desman
Name: Gregor Dešman Main Subject: Classical Piano Research Supervisor: Anna Scott Title of Research: Adapting Live Classical Music Performance for Different Venues Research Question: In what ways can a musician adjust his or her performance approach by taking into account the characteristics of a specific type of venue? Summary of Results: Each performance is unique, and depends on many factors including a performer’s physical and psychological condition, their connection to the repertoire, and most importantly, the conditions presented by a given venue. In this research project I have concentrated primarily on the latter, and have sought to determine the particular challenges and possibilities presented by varying types of venues, and how such knowledge can be used to guide the conscious decisions performers make in order to adapt their performances accordingly. My methodology first involved carrying out background research, using relevant academic literature as well as my own experiences as a pianist. By focusing on three types of venues (concert halls, music clubs, and private homes), I was then able to compile a list of the advantages and challenges presented by each type of performance space. From this list I then prepared three different interpretations of Ferruccio Busoni's transcription of the Chaconne from J. S. Bach's Partita in D Minor, with each interpretation being specially adapted to the limitatons and possibilities presented by each of the three venue types. I then tested each interpretation by performing it in its respective venue, the results of which I documented via audio and video recordings. I was then able to analyse the effectiveness of my venue-specific interpretative decisions in these recordings, after which I compiled a table that can function as a guide for adjusting one's performances to specific venues. By carrying out this research project, I have found that in order to better communicate with their audiences, musicians can and should adjust their performances to specific types of venues. While musicians make many smaller adjustments instinctively, as related to voicing or phrasing for example, learning the logic and mechanics behind such modifications emboldens one to make larger changes as related to tempo and even character – an interpretive flexibility towards which all musicians should strive. Biography: Pianist Gregor Dešman studies with Prof. Naum Grubert at the Royal Conservatory of The Hague. He completed postgraduate studies with Prof. Ruben Dalibaltayan in Zagreb and graduate studies in Ljubljana with Prof. Hinko Haas. Gregor has successfully competed in many international competitions and as a soloist has performed with the Ljubljana Opera and Ballet Orchestra and with the Slovenian Philharmonic Orchestra. Gregor performs across Europe with internationally successful musicians such as Tibor Molnar and Joachim Eijlander, and with the GUD Piano Trio, who have an international career and have studied with Prof. Tomaž Lorenz and Trio di Parma in Duino, Italy.
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Apollo’s Banquet for children: Teaching baroque music to the young violinist (2016 ) Ryuko Reid
Name: Ryuko Reid Main Subject: Baroque Violin Research Supervisor: Johannes Boer Title of Research: Apollo’s Banquet for Children: Teaching baroque music to the young violinist Research Question: How can the baroque “rules” being used today in the field of historically informed performance practice be taught at a young age? Summary of Results: The purpose of this study is to investigate what aspects of the musical language of the baroque era can be experienced from twenty songs found in John Playford’s Apollo’s Banquet. This is a collection of country-dances, broad street ballads, theatre tunes, tunes from Morris dancing, Scottish tunes and French dances, that were published for the amateur violinist in 1670. In this study, these songs were taught to students between the ages of 5 and 10 with activities designed to create awareness of gestures, bar hierarchy, light cadences and other important baroque features, in a fun and approachable way. Videos and observations of the lessons show that the repertoire was well received and the paper shows that the use of the songs provided an effective initial stage in experiencing baroque music However the students would need to be exposed to many more examples of these baroque elements before they become consciously learned. This paper also concludes that other elements of baroque music not included in this study, such as rhetorical devices and improvisation could be investigated, and exploring folk music repertoire of the seventeenth century would provide our students with a richer experience of the baroque style. Biography: Ryuko Reid is a baroque violinist specialising in historically informed performance practice and is the artist director and leader of Amsterdam Corelli Collective. Ryuko works as a violin teacher in Muziekschool Amstelveen and studied the Kodály method at Koninklijk Conservatorium. She came to study baroque violin with Sophie Gent at Conservatorium van Amsterdam and is currently finishing her masters at Koninklijk Conservatorium, with Kati Debretzeni and Walter Reiter. Before moving to Amsterdam, she studied modern violin with Jan Repko, taught at Chetham’s School of Music and studied Dalcroze method in Manchester, UK.
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John Cage's Bacchanale. A reconstruction for percussion ensemble. (2017 ) Gorka Catediano Andrade
Name: Gorka Catediano Andrade Main Subject: Classical Percussion Research Supervisor: Karst de Jong Title of Research: John Cage´s Bacchanale - A reconstruction for percussion ensemble Research Question: John Cage's piece Bacchanale (1940) was written for prepared piano. However, this was likely because of logistical restraints. Is there an instrumentation for percussion ensemble possible, and if so, how would it sound? Summary of Results: After researching about different prepared piano pieces by John Cage, we can realise that Bacchanale is the most suitable to be rewritten for percussion instruments due to its sonority and circumstances of composition. The piece was conceived for percussion instruments but there was not enough room in the theater to set up all these instruments. Therefore, Cage composed Bacchanale for a piano with different found objects placed into strings. For this research, a set of percussion instruments, similar to the ones that Cage´s ensemble had, imitates the prepared piano´s sonority. All the original sounds have been distributed in its corresponding drums and the composition has been transcribed to be played by four percussionists. During the presentation, both the reconstruction procedure and video recordings of the transcription will be shown to the audience. In this way, the audience will be able to understand why this piece can be perfectly played in a concert using percussion instruments, how can we came up with this result and what is its sonority. Biography: Gorka was born in 1992 in Miranda de Ebro (Spain), where he started his music studies. He continued developing his knowledge in the Conservatory of Vitoria- Gasteiz, “Jesús Guridi”. Later, he graduated from the Music Conservatory of the Basque Country (with prof. Javier Alonso, Lorenzo Ferrandiz, José Trigueros and Antonio Domingo). He is currently completing a master in percussion at Koninklijk Conservatorium (The Hague, The Netherlands) with Hans Zonderop, Theum van Niewburg, Pepe García, Niels Mefieste and Rob Verhagen. He has collaborated with many instrumental groups including Symphony Orchestra of The Basque Country, Bilbao Symphony Orchestra, Slagwerk Den Haag and AskoSchoenberg among others. He has also won prizes in different competitions, as the 2º prize in the Italy Percussion Competition in 2014 and he has played as soloist in prestigious festivals as “Quincena Musical Donostiarra”. Chamber music is an essential aspect in his professional career. He is part of IKKO percussion quartet and Trio ZUKAN (percussion, txistu and accordion). Both ensembles collaborate with several contemporary music composers.
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The success of a symphonic transcription (2017 ) Johan Smeulders
Name: Johan Smeulders Main Subject: Wind Orchestra Conducting (HaFaBra) Research Supervisor: Suzan Overmeer Title of Research: The success of a symphonic transcription Research Question: What makes a symphonic transcription (for Concert band, Fanfare and Brass band) of one of the Great Masters from the 19th century successful? Summary of Results: The success of a chosen key in a symphonic transcription depends on several thoughts from arrangers and composers. It is possible to choose any kind of key for a symphonic transcription but the choice always has consequences. For example, the chosen key has consequences for the amount of sharps and flats in the individual parts for the different instruments. Another very important consequence, while a different key is chosen, is the choice for the solo parts in a transcription. Every instrument has its limitations within a chosen key because of the “limited” register for a particular solo instrument. The hard part in my research is the question: “What is success”? And how is it possible to define “success”? When a different key, another key than what is written in the original composition is chosen, some people will say the “colour” of the composition has also changed. Some people say they can feel and hear it but as we all know a lot of thoughts in music are subjective. So how can we define its success when a lot of things are subjective? What is good, better or wrong? Luckily, I have found some measurable facts to define the success of a symphonic transcription. My main conclusion, at this moment, is that the success of a symphonic transcription is based on several choices. First you will need to choose a key for the transcription that fits the ensemble in a natural way. When this key is chosen with knowledge about the limitations of the ensemble the transcription has to be instrumented in a high level of craftsmanship. Biography: Johan Smeulders finished his first Bachelor degree in 2011 as a euphonium player at the Fontys Conservatoire in Tilburg. He finished his Bachelor degree of Conducting arts studying at the Royal Conservatoire in The Hague in 2015. He is the principal conductor of two fanfare bands and two concert bands in the south of the Netherlands. He also works as an arranger and as a professional euphonium player.
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Squalid and Obscure: Timbral Word Painting at the Arpa Doppia (2017 ) Hannah Rose (Kit) Spencer
Name: Kit (Hannah Rose) Spencer Main Subject: Baroque Harp Research Supervisor: Kate Clark Title of Research: Squalid and Obscure: Timbral Word Painting at the Arpa Doppia Research Question: Can timbral refinement, through synthesized notation and subsequent technical exercises, enhance contrast and word painting in arpa doppia continuo realisations of Seconda Prattica songs? Summary of Results: While functionally versatile, the arpa doppia, an Italian harp of imposing size with multiple layers of resonating strings, revealed its nature as fondamento, in the subtle art of continuo. Direct contact with the open strings gave singers, accompanying themselves on the harp, unparalleled control over the instrument’s timbral potential. This is reflected in the role of the instrument within musica secreta, private concerts at the courts of Ferrara and Modena stylistically favouring word painting and chromaticism, in ensembles such as the concerto delle donna and Baroni sisters. The expressive freedom of their art influenced poets and composers and contributed to the development of the seconda prattica at the turn of the sixteenth century. Indeed, voice and harp were held up as the ideal way to perform epic poetry, a reflection of the mesmerising contrast and colour their combined forces could deliver. How do we find this unique skill-set today from a broken line of tradition, contending with limited, conflicting primary resources? There is very little surviving repertoire specific to the instrument, and other sources such as paintings are static representations with considerable variation in position and placement of the instrument, body and hands, making it hard to replicate. In the years dedicated to exploring the arpa doppia, we harpists uncover these insights through shared motions and motivations of our forebears— finding a way to play like them by trying to vividly colour the text as they did. This is a way artistic research can bring to life the spectrum of lost practice and technique. My research has resulted in the creation of timbral notation for the arpa doppia, easily added to music notation and publishing software. This notation is designed to help recreate as much as possible all the timbral refinement found by the hands of masterful singer-harpists. It documents, builds upon and preserves the invaluable research of historical practitioners, using visual, contact-based diagrams to provide clarity in understanding this evocative and highly specialised art form. With this foundation of  timbre and text, it aims to reconstitute the virtuosity, influence and innovation of the original arpa doppia players, through our shared practice today.   
Biography: While playing as the Australian Youth Orchestra's Principal Harpist, and as a fellow of the Tasmanian Symphony Orchestra, Kit Spencer's Honours degree culminated in studying Berio's infamous Sequenza II with its foremost interpreter, Alice Giles. Her passion for colour, gesture and bass lead her to arpa doppia, beginning with Andrew Lawrence King's St. Petersburg production of Landi's La Morte d'Orfeo and Monteverdi's L'Orfeo in Bauska Castle, Latvia.
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Reseach: Caprice Basque, P. Sarasate (2016 ) Mikel Ibanez
Name: Mikel Ibañez Santervas Main subject: Violin Main Subject teacher: Peter Brunt Research supervisor: Herman Jeurissen. Title of the research: Caprice Basque op.24 by Pablo Sarasate. Way of being interpreted. Research question: Why did Pablo Sarasate compose the first dance of the Caprice Basque in 3/4 bar? Summary of results: The first dance of the "Caprice Basque" op. 24 by Pablo Sarasate is composed in 3/4 although it is a traditional dance from Basque Country which is usually played in 5/8. The piece was composed in 1880 when the quintuple bars were not still common at the classical occidental musical language but they were beginning to be spread little by little. After having analyzed all the documentation about it, my conclusion is that in the folkloric music often the musicians do not play what is written in the score really precisely. Sometimes what is written in the score is just an approximation of what it sounds. Is at the second half of the XIX, when, the folkloric music gets analyzed by expert musicians, that we start to see the relation between what we listen and what we read in the scores. This is exactly the case of Pablo Sarasate. He knew about the 5/8 bar when he composed the Caprice Basque ( because of the geographical closeness of Pamplona (his hometown) and the Basque Country, and because there were in the Basque tradition some written 5/8 “Zortziko” examples as the one we have seen of 1813 by Antonia de Mazarredo or her sister Juana de Mazarredo) but despite he wrote it in 3/4, it is completely sure that he would interpret it in the traditional way. Attached we can see a transcription of the piece in 5/8 which shows how the "Caprice Basque" op. 24 should sound. Biography: Mikel Ibañez, violinist. Born in Vitoria-Gasteiz (Spain) in 1989. He began his violin studies at de age of 6 at his hometown’s conservatory with the teacher Agustí Coma Alabert. Throughout his ten first years of studies, he complemented the violin lessons with his main teacher having some master classes with other teachers like: Víctor Parra, Christiam Ifrim, Joaquín Palomares and Keiko Wataya. Once he was graduated in 2006, Mikel was accepted in MUSIKENE to study bachelor with the prestigious Japanese teacher Keiko Wataya. He obtained the bachelor degree with distinction in 2012. Then, searching for a technical and musical development, Mikel moved to The Hague after being accepted at the Royal Conservatorium of the same city to study with Peter Brunt, and got the bachelor degree in 2014. Currently, he studies second year Master at the Royal Conservatorium of The Hague with Peter Brunt.
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Transcribing Rachmaninoff’s Variations on a Theme of Corelli for Orchestral Ensemble. (2017 ) Raquel Garzás Garcia-Pliego
Name: Raquel Garzás García-Pliego Main Subject: Classical Piano Research Supervisor: Anna Scott Title of Research: Transcribing Rachmaninoff’s Variations on a Theme of Corelli for Orchestral Ensemble Research Question: Can creating orchestral transcriptions of this piano piece confirm or change current perceptions of its character and meaning; and can studying the relationship between the orchestral and piano duo versions of Rachmaninoff's Symphonic Dances help inform my arrangements of his Variations? Summary of Results: This research paper focuses on the process and effects of creating orchestral transcriptions of Sergei Rachmaninoff's piano work Variations on a Theme of Corelli. The goal of this research has been to build more than one orchestral version of some of these variations in order to help piano students (as well as myself) arrive at more than one interpretation of the piece. In order to explore this idea of interpretive multiplicity and flexibility in the Variations, I based my transcription process on Rachmaninoff's Symphonic Dances: a work that the composer produced first for orchestra and afterwards for piano duo. During my analysis of the Symphonic Dances I tried to understand the composer's view of the relationship between orchestral and pianistic timbres so that I could then apply similar characteristics to my own transcriptions. As pianists we are frequently asked to think and play orchestrally, but sometimes we do not have the inspiration or tools to experiment with new sonorities and modes of sound production. In making these transcriptions, I have been able to explore and expand my own relationship with this work, while also opening up my mind to the interpretive possibilities inherent in other familiar piano works. In my presentation I will highlight elements of my analysis and transcription process before demonstrating their effects on my interpretation of Rachmaninoff's Variations at the piano. Biography: Raquel Garzás was born in Spain in 1992. After finishing her Bachelor Degree in Zaragoza, Spain, she continued her studies by pursuing a Master's Degree at the Koninklijk Conservatorium in Den Haag with David Kuyken. Raquel has a special affinity for chamber and contemporary repertoires, and is a member of the chamber group Camus Trio. In recent years she has performed as a soloist with several orchestras, including the "Chamber Music Orchestra Andrés Segovia" together with the "Orfeón Donostiarra" in the National Auditorium of Madrid.
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The Sound of the Big Band: Between evolution and continuity (2017 ) Claudio jr de Rosa
Name: Claudio Jr De Rosa Main Subject: Jazz Saxophone Research Supervisor: Patrick Schenkius Title of Research: The Sound of the Big Band: Between evolution and continuity Research Question: How can I define the essential characteristics of the voicings in the writing of Gil Evans, Bob Brookmeyer, and Maria Schneider? How can I internalize them and make them part of my arranging vocabulary? Summary of Results: The main goal of this thesis is outlining the fundamental elements of the style of three jazz masters of Big Band arranging: Gil Evans, Bob Brookmeyer, and Maria Schneider, focusing on their voicings through a deep analysis of some of their works. The second part, however, is intended to be more practical and personal. Knowing the elements that characterize the style of these writers, I will show some components that stood out in the previous analysis included in some of the 13 arrangements I did during my Master. Biography: Saxophonist, composer, arranger, award winner, Claudio Jr De Rosa is a rising personality in the European Jazz scene. After a Master in Classical Saxophone, he is concluding the Master in Jazz under the guidance of J. Ruocco, H. Huizinga, and P. Schenkius. He recorded jazz CDs with his trio Zadeno Trio and with the CJDR Jazz 4et, and toured extensively in Europe and Asia. As an arranger, he wrote for the NSJO, KC Big Band, CvA Big Band, and CJDR Jazz Ensemble. He won the “Louis van Dick Arranging Jazz Award 2016” and his music was performed by the Jazz Orchestra of the Concertgebouw.
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Violin education in middle childhood (2017 ) Koosje van Haeringen
Abstract Title of Research: Violin education in middle childhood. Research Question: How can an optimal musical and violinistic development be achieved in the teaching of children in middle childhood? Summary of Results: In middle childhood (7-11/12 years) enter a new phase in the development of their cognitive functions, their motor skills and social behaviour. In this research I investigate how these developments should be understood from the perspective of violin teaching to children in this age group and how these developments can be used by the teacher to the benefit of their education to become all-round violinists and musicians. For this research I studied the relevant literature in the field of development psychology and the training of young talents and I compared the scholarly theories and insights with my personal experience as a violin and violin methodology teacher of more than 20 years. In this thesis I describe the great potential that violin teaching to children in middle childhood offers, provided that the teacher has a good understanding of the learning process of the child, a clear vision and long-term strategy for the teaching and tremendous patience. Central elements of this vision should be a clear overview and balanced approach of all the different elements that make an expert violinist and all-round musician, the flexibility to respond and adapt to the specific abilities and needs of each individual pupil and an approach that fully involves the child in his/her own learning process.
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To be melodramatic: Writing a text to music according to the melodramatic tradition (2017 ) Yotam Gaton
Name: Yotam Gaton Main Subject: Baroque Violin Research Supervisor: Bart van Oort Title of Research: Writing a text to music to be performed as done in Melodramas Research Question: What are the different ways in which text and music are put together in the Romantic Melodramas? Summary of Results: I use examples from compositions of the early Romantics until those of the end of the 19th century. Ways to treat the fusion of text and music, as can be seen from the literature, are presented in the story that I wrote, a story that is meant to be narrated with early Romantic music. The Melodrama that developed in the 70s' of the 18th century, although disregarded by some critics, became - mostly in the Germanic countries, a popular genre, used by composers from Benda through Mozart and Beethoven, to Liszt and Humperdinck. In a world that constantly looked for musical innovations, melodrama gave a new meaning for that primary connection of music and text. So how is this text-music relation kept? Are there clear principals in composing music to recited text as can be learned from Melodramas in the Romantic period? Representative melodramas by early and late romantic composers are discussed. The Melodrama developed due to changes in the artistic approach to the fusion of music and text. From its early days of Rousseau and Benda and the autonomy they sought to give to each art, to the complete immersion and fusion of the two in the Melodramas of Schuman, Liszt and Humperdinck, highlighting the qualities of both arts. The core of this work is my own intake on Melodrama. I brought examples from the story that I wrote for different fusions of recited text and music. Unlike Melodramas where music is written to text, here the process is reversed and text was written to music. Biography: Yotam Gaton was chamber music oriented from an early age, performing as concertmaster and principal second violin with Israel’s finest chamber ensembles.
Yotam joined the IDF and served as the leader and first violinist of the IDF string quartet where he wrote and performed series of lecture concerts.
Former member and concertmaster of the European Union Baroque Orchestra, Yotam played with renowned ensembles such as Les Arts Florissants and performed in Europe's most important Early Music festivals. Both as a soloist and a group member, he collaborated with some of the greatest Early Music artists such as Frans Brüggen, Masaaki Suzuki, William Christie, Lars Ulrik Mortensen and Rachel Podger.
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Entwine – finding music within a poem. (2018 ) Natasza Kurek
Entwine – finding music within a poem. Exploring musical interpretations of Japanese Tanka by Yosano Akiko What can be the contemporary musical expressions of tanka poetry from a standpoint of an improvising jazz vocalist? What are the elements that constitute tanka’s character and can they trigger a vocal inspiration? What could be the place of Japanese poetry within other artistic disciplines? In my research I have explored Japanese aesthetic sensibilities and have tried to find their translations into my own musical experimentation. After initial study of the relevant literature and listening to the existing works of both classical Japanese music and Western contemporary compositions influenced by the Japanese arts, I have proceeded with my own vocal- instrumental Sketches in which I have experimented with improvised and written music. My source material was tanka of an early 20th century poet Yosano Akiko. The improvisations and compositional sketches are based on some specifically chosen elements: the imagery and meaning of the tanka poem, layered Ukiyo-e printing technique, sound associations derived from the paintings, Japanese language sonority, Japanese scales and harmony used in the traditional gagaku ensemble and other inspirations. The final research document contains audio examples of the recordings that led to the final audio-visual presentation and an extensive paper documenting the process of discovery.
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IN - The creation of an immerive music performance (2017 ) Jonathan Bonny
Name: Jonathan Bonny Main Subject: Classical Percussion Research Supervisors: Gerard Bouwhuis, Fedor Teunisse Title of Research: IN – the creation of an immersive music performance Research Question: How can immersive performance concepts be used to create a better connection between a musician and his audience? Summary of Results: In my research, I reflected on several aspects of a concert and how I want to communicate with my audience. Throughout the research I realised that finding ways to immerse an audience is easier said than done. My belief in immersion as a tool to guide listeners towards a certain atmosphere, attitude or interpretation is nevertheless still as strong as before. More than ever, I am convinced that this is the way for me to perform. This is particularly the case for contemporary music where inexperienced listeners might appreciate some guidance. This paper aims to inform (performing) readers of the possible (positive and negative) consequences of creating an immersive performance. Creating an immersive performance is difficult. It takes a lot of time, something musicians often do not have. In addition to learning the music, the performer needs time to brainstorm about the kind of immersion that supports the musical idea and does not distract from it. The line between the two is very thin. Once the immersion concept is established it often takes a lot of preparation to execute it. To bring elaborate ideas to fruition musicians will need the help of technicians, engineers, other artists etc. This explains why immersive performances are often organised by ensembles that rely on a bigger production team and budget. The danger here lies in the fact that those teams are often too far removed from the actual content of the music. Realising this made me think about other ways to connect with an audience. I concluded that besides immersion, also attitude and mindset are very powerful tools to decrease the distance between a performer and the audience. Low-tech solutions like literally performing very close to or surrounded by them are very effective to emotionally connect with the audience. Because of the reflective character of the topic I chose to write my dissertation in the form of an essay. My goal is not to present 'the ultimate truth' but to inspire myself and other musicians to create a personal (contemporary) performing identity. Biography: Jonathan Bonny (°1992, Bruges) studied classical percussion at the School of Arts in Ghent, the Sibelius Academy in Helsinki and the Royal Conservatoire in The Hague. He is actively building towards a music culture that knows no distinction between genres and he is consistently looking for innovative ways to present contemporary arts to a bigger audience. He co-founded Headliner (adventurous music collective), Kunstenfestival PLAN B (contemporary arts festival) and IHEART (band).
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Music education in the Teacher Training College (2016 ) Marielle Heidekamp
Name: Mariëlle Heidekamp Main Subject: Music education in the Teacher Training College Research Supervisor(s): Suzanne Konings, Renee Jonker Title of Research: Music education in the Teacher Training College Research Question: What content has to be included in the first-year module for the Gouda Teacher Training College (TTC) to give students the experience, knowledge, skills and confidence required to experience joy in making music with children and to enable them to teach good and joyful music lessons in primary schools? Summary of the Results: “There will be good music education in the schools only when we educate good teachers” This quote from Kodály inspired me to start this research. In the Teacher Training College (TTC) there are quite a lot of students who, after completing the two year music module, do not feel confident enough to organise well-balanced music lessons in primary schools. Apart from this, music education is underappreciated in primary schools. By using the method of Practised-Based Research, I have examined how to change the music-modules in the TTC in order to profoundly motivate and equip students to provide well-balanced music lessons in primary schools. In this new music module the students will personally experience the joy and pleasure in music-making and they will be inspired to pass on this feeling of joy to the children. I will show you in my Research Paper and in the Presentation that the content of the new module, inspired by the SFM-model and the concept of the three P's, will give students the knowledge and skills necessary to feel confident enough to organise their music lessons. Biography: I am 34 years old. I am class teacher in primary school for 13 years and music teacher in the Teacher Training College in Gouda for 5 years. I have studied on the Teacher Training College from 2000-2003, on the KC Bachelor Music Education from 2011-2013, on the course 'Muziek als Vak' in 2014. In my free time I am a conductor of a children's choir and a mixed choir. I play the flute and sing in choir as a soprano.
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Perspectives on Kodály Cello Teaching (2016 ) Wiesje van Eersel
Name: Wiesje van Eersel Main Subject: Music Education According to the Kodály Concept Research Coach: Patrick van Deurzen Title of Research: Perspectives on Kodály Cello Teaching Research Question: In which way can the Kodály concept form an integrated part of a cello teaching curriculum for children? Summary of Results: In search of a suitable method to educate my pupils towards comprehensive cello playing, I came across the Kodály concept. My first encounter was promising and I decided to pursue this further. My research investigates possible ways to integrate the Kodály concept in cello teaching for children. In my research paper, first the Kodály concept is defined, and on that basis, existing methods and practices are analysed and examined. In addition to the study of the written sources I have also observed lessons and experimented with the materials myself. Alongside this investigation I have been integrating the Kodály concept in my own teaching for three years. The reflection on that experience, together with my findings from the existing methods results in the conclusion that there are many possible ways to integrate (elements of) the Kodály concept in cello teaching. In the analysed methods, and in my own teaching, choices on how to integrate the concept depend on several factors. The initial perception of the concept is of influence, but also the practical reality of a particular teaching practice. I came to the conclusion that a structural, full implementation of the concept would have implications for the practical arrangement of my teaching. In my presentation I want to show the different perspectives, give practical examples and share my thoughts on a possible way to realise the concept in my teaching practice. Biography Wiesje van Eersel is cello teacher at the PI, Junior and Young Talent Department of the Royal Conservatoire, where she teaches children between 5 and 12 years old. She also teaches cello methodology at the Royal Conservatoire and the Conservatoire of Amsterdam, and teaches in a public music school.
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Harmony on the violin - internalising harmony for violinists and the role of (tonal) improvisation (2017 ) Liesbeth Ackermans
Abstract Harmony on the violin – exploring ways to enhance harmonic awareness by improvisation. How can playing with basic elements of classical music help us to enter the music we perform ‘from within’, to enjoy the creative moment in connection with the repertoire we know so well and love so much, to ‘co-compose’… How can (tonal) improvisation be an aid to learn about harmony in a way that experience comes first, using, in this research, the violin as our voice? In this research my aim has been to create a toolbox of games/exercises that can be used working in the above mentioned way. At the same time the exploratory journey of the research proved to be a transformative experience with regard to my own relationship with the music I play, love and teach. In this paper those two threads – the development of educational material and the testing out of it on the one hand and my personal development as a violinist and musician on the other hand - are constantly intertwined. The one cannot do without the other. This paper is a report of all activities that added to the above mentioned two processes. The report will guide you through the origins of the research, the rich input of colleagues, masters and books on the subject, a report of the practising, imagining, exploring hours spent by myself in my garden house, information on the enjoyable sessions when trying out the material with students. At the centre of the paper you will find the games and exercises themselves – the content of the toolbox, called ‘Invitations’. A closer look at certain aspects of the research is found in Chapter 5 – Behind the scene. The paper will finish with a set of recommendations and conclusions and – above all – future plans. I do hope you will enjoy this research – a research into methods that can be used to let the playing from musical intuition and the building of harmonic consciousness meet. In doing so, enjoying the richness, benefits and pleasure that musical improvisation has to offer in music education.
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Double Bass Home Recordings (2017 ) João Lucas
Name: João Pedro Almeida Lucas Main Subject: Classical Double Bass Research Supervisor: Margaret Urquhart Title of Research: Double bass homemade recordings Research Question: How to get the pure sound of the double bass in a homemade recording? Summary of Results: Often, musicians are required to send out a recording for a competition, an audition or simply for self-promotion. Unfortunately, not everybody can afford a studio and qualified technicians to have a good final result. However, nowadays, there is low budget equipment (microphones, sound cards, hand recorders, among others) that, when used in a proper way, can provide good results. Being fascinated by the recording and studio worlds, I began to take interest in this particular matter. During the past year and a half, I have focused on recording bass players, with different approaches to the instrument and repertoire. There are some factors to take into consideration regarding my experiences: each player was using their own instrument; the recordings were made in different environments (except the ones used for comparison); the same mic settings were used, in order to make a more precise comparison between two different instruments; and all the recordings were made in solo context, with no other instruments involved. The focus was only on capturing the sound (without editing). In conclusion, I believe that a double bass recording can improve significantly even with low cost equipment, when used in a proper way. My main goal with this research was to gather my experiences and recommendations into an accessible guide for double bass home recordings. Biography: João Pedro Almeida Lucas began his double bass studies in 2006 with Romeu Santos at EPABI (Professional Music School of Beira Interior), Covilhã, Portugal. In 2011, João was invited by his current teacher, Quirijn van Regteren Altena to become his student at the Koninklijk Conservatorium. On 2013, João Participated in “KarrKamp”, a summer camp with the world leading soloist Gary Karr in Victoria, Canada. He is a member of Ciconia Consort Orkest, a string orchestra in The Hague; Salad Ensemble, improvised music project, in Portugal; João is a regular guest in The Residentie BachOrkest and in the Rietveld Ensemble.
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Research Paper (2017 ) Vasileios Filippou
Name: Vasileios Filippou Main Subject: Composition Title of Research: Ottoman music as a source of inspiration for today’s composers Subtitle: Applying aspects of Ottoman Classical music within current compositional practice Research Question: How can I, as a composer, understand the rich tradition of Ottoman Classical music and as a result, inform my compositional work? Summary of Results: By outlining and critically evaluating my compositional process, this research paper aims to suggest methods of composing that are influenced by, and arise from a deep understanding of Ottoman Classical music. The purpose of this research is to show ways in which Ottoman Classical music can provide compositional tools for today’s composers (especially those with a European Classical background). The paper and the composition examples will illustrate possible ways in which Ottoman Classical music can be used. The important results of this research are presented in the form of compositions, accompanied by their analyses, where the ways I approached the research question are demonstrated. A diagram has been devised, which can be used as a method of drawing inspiration from various musical elements whilst reflecting on them. The points discussed on the use of Ottoman Classical music in today’s practice and the two opposing views on this matter are key to these results as they have informed the study. This is a practice as research approach where composition, which is my artistic practice, becomes both my subject and my tool of research. It is an area not extensively studied in the past and it is free of pre-defined methods and open to new interpretations. This paper can be an introduction to composers who have not yet studied or practiced this kind of music. Biography: Vasileios Filippou (b. Cyprus, 1991) is currently a master student at Koninklijk Conservatorium Den Haag studying composition with Yannis Kyriakides and Calliope Tsoupaki. He holds a master degree with a scholarship fromTrinity Laban conservatoire and a bachelor degree from Royal Holloway, London. His music has been performed in The United Kingdom, Netherlands, Greece, Spain and Cyprus, broadcasted from BBC Radio 3 (UK) and RIK Radio (CY) and also presented in Aldeburgh and Cheltenham music festivals. Latest major performances include a piece for Orkest de Ereprijs in Appeldoorn and a piece for Ives ensemble and Slagwerk Den Haag in Amsterdam.
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Developing Vocal Techniques in Contemporary Solo Double Bass Repertoire: A pedagogical approach to developing vocal techniques and coordination in Western classical-contemporary solo double bass repertoire (2016 ) Cody Takacs
Name: Cody Takacs Main Subject: Classical Double Bass Research Supervisor: Maggie Urquhart Title of Research: Developing Vocal Techniques in Contemporary Solo Double Bass Repertoire: A pedagogical approach to developing vocal techniques and coordination in Western classical-contemporary solo double bass repertoire Research Question: How can double bassists efficiently learn contemporary solo double bass repertoire requiring the simultaneous use of their voice and playing their instrument? Summary of Results: Due to an exponentially growing number of compositions and a complete lack of pedagogical material regarding simultaneously using the voice and playing the double bass, I have written a method book titled The Double Bass-Voice: A How-To Guide. For this book I have collected, adapted, and organized information from double bass pedagogical resources, vocal pedagogical resources, musical scores, and reflections on past experiences with this repertoire. The book is intended to develop the technique and coordination necessary to effectively prepare solo double bass-voice repertoire. The book is divided into four main sections: “Using the Voice as a Practice Aid,” “Vocal Tools and Techniques,” “Etudes and Exercises,” and “Notation Examples” as well as a database of the solo double bass-voice repertoire. By incorporating the voice as a tool into individual practice, understanding an efficient practice process and fundamental vocal technique, having access to simple etudes to develop double bass-voice technique and coordination in musical contexts, and knowing what to expect in notation, double bassists will be better prepared in learning works for double bass-voice more efficiently. These results will be presented via PowerPoint presentation with musical examples from the method book and select double bass-voice works. Biography: Cody Takacs is a classically trained American double bassist currently residing in The Hague. An avid performer of new music, he has performed with Ensemble Klang, De Nieuwe European Ensemble, Het Metropole Orkest, and the Lucerne Festival Academy Orchestra and has appeared in the Gaudeamus Muziekweek, Venice Biennale, and Bang on a Can Summer Music Festival. He has given contemporary solo performances at the Rotterdam Contemporary Art Fair, Carnegie Hall, several universities and conservatories across the U.S. and Europe, and a lecture/performance on Iannis Xenakis at the International Society of Bassists convention.
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Performing the 'Group of the Six' (2018 ) Federico Forla
Name: Federico Forla Main Subject: Oboe Research supervisor: Wouter Verschuren Title of Research: Performing the 'Group of the Six' Research Question: Which are the common aesthetic aspects found in the Group of the Six? How can one exemplify it in the performance? Summary of Results: A new French style starts to develop at the beginning of twentieth-century. This style will flourish and develop trough all the century. We can find in the 'Group of the Six' a first controversial example of this new aesthetic. In my research I used historical sources, writings of the composers and writers of the time, together with detailed analysis of representative compositions. Merging all this information, I was able to create a clearer picture of the new French aesthetic of the 'Group of the Six'. Performance practice is a central aspect: specific examples of the aesthetic's reflection in the scores are intended as a suggestion for the execution. A case-study at the end of the research shows a practical example of how the collected information can be used and related within a specific piece. Biography: Since the beginning of my musical studies I got really interested in chamber music. It was for me the most direct, simple and democratic way to make music together. In the following years this interest persisted, giving me the urge to explore and experiment new repertoire. My initial period at the Royal Conservatoire was characterized by my first serious approach to French chamber music of twentieth-century. My research was inspired by the issues, doubts and reflections of that period.
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Josef Beer - The perfect clarinetist (2017 ) Maryse Legault
Name: Maryse Gagnon-Legault Main Subject: Historical Clarinet Research Supervisor: Wouter Verschuren Title of Research: Josef Beer - The complete clarinet virtuoso Research Question: What was the importance of the 18th century clarinetist Josef Beer and what made him stand out as the first international virtuoso on the clarinet? Summary of Results: The history of music is punctuated by the rise of crucial players who, by force of skills, influenced the work of composers, brought their instrument to technical improvement, pushed the boundaries of musical possibilities or just popularized a specific way of playing. One player did all those things at the end of the 18th century with the use of his instrument, the clarinet. Although mentioned in all history books about the clarinet, today’s scholars have done little research on Josef Beer. However, when looking closer at Beer’s life, repertoire and works, we notice how much he had the chance to be at the right place at the right moment. A known teacher of many of the greatest clarinet virtuosi, such as Michel Yost and Heinrich Baermann, he had influenced a generation of young musicians, popularizing his instrument all over Europe with his extensive tours. But what do we really know about Josef Beer and what made him stand out to become such an influential musician? This research is about the life and works written for and by this intriguing man, as well as a reflection on the general implication of the soloist in clarinet concerti and how the music he played became extremely personal, by the addition of unique ornamentation and variations of the “skeleton” - the score - made by the composer. Mainly biographical and historical, this work aims also to approach Beer through the performances of works by composers gravitating around him, including his own compositions. Biography: Maryse Legault is currently pursuing a Master’s degree at the Koninklijk Conservatorium Den Haag in historical clarinets in the class of Eric Hoeprich. During her studies in the Netherlands, Maryse has had the opportunity to perform with many ensembles as a soloist, as well as an orchestral and chamber musician, in various countries including France, Belgium, Germany, The Netherlands and Russia. Curious to approach different repertoires, she focuses her research around the role of late 18th-century clarinet soloists and the birth of the pre-romantic German school of clarinet playing. Maryse holds a bachelor degree from McGill University in Montreal and plans to pursue doctoral studies next year in order to deepen her research experience.
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The Lamentações para a Semana Santa by José Joaquim dos Santos and Luciano Xavier dos Santos and the music for two violas, voices concertate and low instruments (2017 ) Enrico Ruggieri
Name: Enrico Ruggieri Main Subject: Choral Conducting Research Supervisors: Charles Toet, Ricardo Bernardes Title of Research: The Lamentações para a Semana Santa by José Joaquim dos Santos and Luciano Xavier dos Santos and the music for two violas, voices concertate and low instruments Research Question: What are the main features of the viola in this specific repertoire and consequently, what becomes its main function? Summary of Results: In 18th-century Portugal, a particular instrumental setting was used in the music composed for a specific Roman Catholic rite called the officium tenebrarum, performed during the Holy Week. This particular instrumentation consists of a standard vocal ensemble, 4 voices concertate, accompanied by a group of string instruments: 2 violas, a cello (or 2 celli) and a double bass. José Joquim dos Santos and Luciano Xavier dos Santos are the composers who exploited this instrumentation best, covering all the needs for music in the Officium tenebrarum. An analysis of two Lamentations by José Joaquim dos Santos and Luciano Xavier dos Santos explores the relation between music and rhetorical tools and how the viola relates to them. Besides being a precious rhetorical tool itself, the analysis discloses that the violas and the low string instruments become a practical replacement for the harmonic instruments. In a liturgy where the organ was officially forbidden there is a need for an instrument or several instruments that could absolve that crucial function. Thanks to his ability in blending with and supporting the voices and, at the same time, respecting the solemnity and the sobriety of the liturgy, the viola became the best organ replacement. Biography: Enrico Ruggieri was born in 1982, graduated in piano, studying with Paolo Russo and Rachele Marchegiani. After a Bachelor in Architecture, there followed a Bachelor degree in Choir Conducting from Pescara Conservatory, a Master degree in Choral Music and Choir Conducting in Bologna Conservatory and a Bachelor degree in Choral Conducting from the Royal Conservatoire, The Hague. He has attended masterclasses with many different musicians specialising in choral conducting and Early Music, such as: Tonu Kalijuste, Peter Phillips, David Lawrence, Julian Wilkins, Walter Marzilli, Marco Berrini, Annibale Cetrangolo, Maurizio Less, and vocal technique with: Ghislaine Morgan, Sandro Naglia, Elisa Turlà (Voicecraft), Federica Fedele (Alexander Technique). He has conducted many amateur choirs with varied repertoire: church music, folk music, early music, mixed choral repertoire. Presently, he is conducting “Lassus Consort” an Early Music vocal ensemble in Amsterdam and the “Quod Libet Kamerkoor” in The Hague.
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How can aspects of the Kodály philosophy and methodology be integrated into instrumental education? (2016 ) Mieke van Dael
Name: Mieke van Dael Main Subject: Music Education According to the Kodály Concept Research Supervisor: Renee Jonker Title of Research: Integrating aspects of the Kodály philosophy and methodology into instrumental education. Research Question: How can aspects of the Kodály philosophy and methodology be integrated into instrumental education? Summary of Results: I started this Master's study and Research while searching for tools which would allow me to develop my students' inner hearing, and while also being aware that instrumental education has remained the same for a long time even though the world around us is changing. In addition, I realised that during my career as a performing bassoonist I have seen changes which I did not understand. My study has opened the door to a wide range of possibilities and follow-up steps for me to take. I now understand why I found a number of things difficult in classical music performance. As far as I am concerned that is closely related to the fact that I was trained to reproduce music from notation, whereas I think that making music is much more than merely reproducing something. Splendid masterworks have been composed throughout musical history and I can thoroughly enjoy them if I am given the chance to play them. However, for me, that is not the only way to make my musical voice heard. I also need to speak a living musical language with my pupils and colleague musicians. If self-expression is an important part of the new learning, then I think that it is essential I develop musical expression with my pupils in order to speak a living musical language. It would be extremely interesting in a follow-up study to investigate how the language develops and then to see what is necessary to develop a living musical language-one in which you learn to listen, speak, read, write and interpret. By doing this research I have come to understand how aspects from the Kodály philosophy and methodology can be integrated into instrumental education and I can see that this is enriching. It has given me many insights and a broad palette of tools which I can use to work in the profession in a more creative and innovative manner. Biography: I studied bassoon, contrabassoon and chamber music at the conservatories of Maastricht and Amsterdam at the end of the 1980s. I began my career in the Dutch musical landscape at the start of the 1990s. I have been a bassoonist and contrabassoonist for more than 20 years and have given concerts in the Netherlands and abroad, including a number of years intensive involvement with the Royal Concertgebouw Orchestra. My career as a bassoon teacher has also covered more than 20 years, and is nowadays at Scholen in de Kunst in Amersfoort and at the Royal Conservatoire The Hague.
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Fontegara as researcher (2014 ) Nuno Atalia
Name: Nuno Galego Marques Atalaia Rodrigues Main Subject: Recorder Research Coaches: Paul Scheepers and Rebecca Stewart Title of Research: Ganassi as researcher, Practice based research and new horizons for HIP Research Question: What changes when I start reading treatises of the past as the result of a practice based research not unlike my own? Research process: The following questions have guided my research and relationship with the XVII century recorder treatise La Fontegara: Was Ganassi an artistic researcher? Can his 1535 treatise, La Fontegara, be thought of as the result of sixteenth century practice based research? What will change in our relationship to documents of the past once we look at them as analogous to our own artistic concerns? What could this understanding of artistic research as a trans-historic event mean for Early Music in particular? My research and thesis leads me to a close reading of Ganassi’s recorder and diminution treatise La Fontegara, trying to go beyond the text and its possible literal meanings and tracing the lost instrumental practice of diminution. With this first treatise of its kind, Ganassi inaugurates an age of instrumental literacy, which has irrevocably shaped our perception of musical practice. By linking the document to its biographical, social, theoretical and practical roots I try to sketch out the possible influences and projects (both political and artistic), which took part in making this work possible, helping to understand the trans-historic significance of research in defining a place for the artist within broader society. Also, I take the chance to reflect how this critical intimacy I establish with the work changes the very core of my identity as a recorder player by shaping my practice as a dialogue with a distant and mostly silent past. Summary of Results: The goal of this research is to stress the importance of research in the arts in redefining the role of the musician within society and of opening up a new wave of debate with which to vitalize the historically informed performance movement. Ganassi’s La Fontegara is a document that holds a far greater importance than that of a simple recorder tutor, which positioned it as the first document in the project of emancipation of instrumentalists and their music. Furthermore, the document should be seen as a vital part of the XVII century propaganda project of diffusing the myth of Venice through its use of speculative music tropes such as the theory of proportions. FInally, I wish to rethink our present relationship to these documents as performers. They were not musical cookbooks but rather crystallizations of a continuous struggle between the performer’s knowledge and his need to describe it. To read La Fontegara, is to go beyond the treatise and speculate on the oral practice from which it stems.
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Spatial awareness in instrumental music: Transformations of attention in a situation, becoming musical structure. (2016 ) Nikos Kokolakis
Even though the idea that “space and spatial experience as aesthetically central” regarding its sonic attributes is a central topic in acousmatic music, it is also of interest for orchestral composers, especially from 20th century onwards. The sound of the 20th century is so broad that gives today’s composers the potential of exploring a vast richness of “first heard” structures, that came as a result of the experiments and achievements of the past, and consequently to form their personal voice which can be relevant to it and capable to converse with it. A greater level of abstraction is needed in order to manage to condense what this knowledge offers to us and the consideration of space during the composition procedure seems to provide us a good starting point since many of the attributes of contemporary music could be included in it. Additionally it seems that a greater level of abstraction would not necessarily make the music less accessible to the audiences if such systems of abstraction take into account research into human physiology and considers the every-day environment. Regarding space in a macro structural level can provide us with the appropriate means to create an experience based on its phenomenology while contemplating its micro structure can lead us to results which are unifying sound qualities that otherwise could be considered to belong in different scopes.
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The Power of Long Notes (2017 ) Ida Vujović
Pedal points and drones are present in almost all musical genres and styles. Although they appear in a whole variety of ways, and can have very diverse effects, music analysis rarely pays attention to these differences. The reason is, perhaps, that there are no defined concepts that would provide vocabulary to both describe and understand the power of sustained notes. My first research question addresses the ‘working’ of pedals and drones: How can we explain the perceptual difference among instances of pedal tones and drones? In searching for the right perspective to tackle this question I have come to two concepts that inspired the further research. The first is the concept of expectation. It is mostly promoted by the writings of Leonard B. Meyer (in the more recent time it is researched and developed by others), which I take as conceptual frame. The second is the concept of interactions that defines and organizes the musical events. The inspiration for the latter came from the social studies. The two concepts are interrelated: the expectation is a product of interactions of musical elements, and the expectations are also involved in interactions, thereby influencing the perception and understanding of a musical piece. My following research questions are: Could the concept of musical expectation and the concept of interaction help explain the power of long notes? If yes, in which ways can these processes influence the perception of pedals and drones? In the process of research, I have concluded that there are several categories of pedals/drones that are not labeled in music theory but are recognizable by many music theorists and musicians. Pointing at these categories and defining them could provide us with more words in pedal/drone-vocabulary. On the other hand, in case these models are recognizable as such, they have the potential to engage in various interactions with the other musical events in the piece, influencing the listener’s understanding of it. From this perspective, it is relevant to examine them. The current research aims at pointing at a number of such models. To define them, I have used the concepts of expectations and interactions. Music analysis of the chosen models and a number of musical fragments are so presenting the practical application of my theoretical research.
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Jazz Drummer Elvin Jones: His Musical Heritage (2016 ) Peter Primus Frosch
Abstract Name: Peter Primus Frosch Main Subject: Jazz Drums Research supervisor: Patrick Schenkius Title of Research: Jazz Drummer Elvin Jones – His Musical Heritage Research Question: What are the methods of Elvin Jones' playing and how did famous jazz drummers deal with his heritage? Summary of Results: The American jazz drummer Elvin Jones is one of the most famous musicians in jazz history. Nevertheless due to the writers' lack of ability to play the drums the existing research is very unsatisfying from a jazz drummer's perspective. Based on a wide array of transcriptions I put together several methods and concepts for accompaniment as well as drum solos developed by Elvin Jones. I also identified two predecessors to specfic stylistic approaches. The second chapter is about Jack Dejohnette, Jeff 'Tain' Watts and Brian Blade and how they dealt with his heritage. My main conclusion is that aspects of Elvin's style especially the method of 'play the drum set as one instrument' completely changed the approach of playing the drums in Jazz. Specific characteristics can be found in the better part of contemporary jazz drummers and therefore it is essential to deal with his concepts and ideas. This research helped me to increase my awareness of various stylistics of modern jazz drum set playing and at the same time I got an idea on how to apply those methods. CV: Peter Primus Frosch (drums) born on the 11.12.1990 He started playing drums at age 5. After school in 2010 he enrolled at the Konservatorium Wien Privatuniversität studying with the likes of Mario Gonzi and Walter Grassmann. Since fall 2014 he is now continuing his master studies at the Royal Conservatory in The Hague, where he is under the guidance of the great dutch jazz drummer Eric Ineke. Awards: Fidelio competition finalist in 2012 and 2013, winner of the audience award in 2012; Most promising award“ by Marianne Mendt Jazznachwuchsförderung; winner of „New faces of Slovak Jazz“ 2014 best drummer at Generations International Jazzfestival Frauenfeld (Switzerland) - Jury: Lewis Nash, Seamus Blake, Don Friedman 2015: Winner of the Herbert Schedlmayer Jazz Stipendium workshops with Louis Hayes, Jimmy Cobb, Lewis Nash, David Hazeltine, Don Friedman, Seamus Blake among others; played with: Roman Schwaller, Clemens Salesny, Stephan Plecher, Jure Pukl, Daniel Nösig, Oliver Kent, Franz Hautzinger, Adrian Mears, Peter Herbert, Reinhard Micko, Klaus Gesing etc.
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The Brass Players Stutter (2017 ) Nick Prince
Name: Nicholas Prince Main Subject: Classical Bass Trombone Research Supervisor: Pete Saunders Title of Research: The brass player’s stutter Research Question: The brass players stutter, what is it, what are the causes and how can it be alleviated? Summary of Results: This paper deals with what is known as the brass player’s stutter, a very common but under researched issue. It occurs as the player inhales a breath to play but cannot exhale and produce the note on demand. The breath is just held in, thus giving a stutter effect. Many well-known professional brass musicians have suffered with these problems at some point in their careers. The author himself is one of the trombonists who has had to deal with this issue. Research was done through a series of interviews with different professional trombonists who have dealt with this problem to get their own opinions on this unusual issue and what they did to alleviate the problems. A questionnaire was also sent to trombone students in The Netherlands to find out if younger students are aware of such issues and if it can be avoided in the future. The results will provide a greater understanding of this problem and how I and others can find a solution to this obscure technical issue.  Biography: Nick Prince is a Bass Trombonist from the UK. After finishing his Bachelor degree with Roger Argente and Graham Lee at Trinity College of Music London, he moved to the Netherlands to do his master degree with Brandt Attema. His keen interest in orchestral music has led to playing with many orchestras including the RPO and Southbank Sinfonia. He also has a keen interest in brass chamber music, being a founding member of the Gianni Brass ensemble, which still performs numerous concerts per year and takes part in many education projects in the London area.
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AN INTERDISCIPLINARY APPROACH TO JAZZ PERFORMANCE (2015 ) Priscilla Nokoe
This research is an exploration in how other performing arts disciplines, namely Dance/Movement and Theatre, can be used and implemented in a jazz performance to possibly create a interdisciplinary performance.
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Learning the altissimo register of the saxophone (2017 ) Emma Jones
Name: Emma Jones Main Subject: Classical Saxophone Research Supervisor: Pete Saunders Research Title: Learning the altissimo register of the saxophone. Research Questions: What are the different approaches to teaching the saxophones altissimo register? Can a combination of these approaches lead to a confident and comfortable use of this register? Summary: This paper looks at how the altissimo register is taught by a number of performing saxophonists and teachers and how advice from lots of different voices can lead to the moment of understanding with the altissimo register. Several method books exist to help access the register but there are few resources for the initial stages of its performance. A collection of short studies based on selected standard repertoire have been composed as a resource for students who are approaching works that demand the use of the altissimo register. A recording of the study and the excerpt of the original material accompanies a small pedagogical text to help the reader towards success. Biography: Emma Jones is a British classical saxophonist. She graduated from the Birmingham Conservatoire with a 1st class honours in 2015 studying under Naomi Sullivan and is in her final year at the Royal Conservatoire in The Hague. She aspires to perform regularly as an orchestral saxophonist and makes up half of the Element Duo who released their debut album in 2015.
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Playing by Heart (2015 ) Inês Serrano Diogo
Name: Ines Serrano Diogo Main Subject: Classical Trumpet Research coach: Susan Williams Title of research: Playing By Heart Research question: Is the application of the Playing by Heart memorization model useful for learning and performing trumpet orchestral excerpts? Summary of the results: The main objective while undergoing this research was to put the PbH memorization model to test in a real life situation. However, this endeavor resulted in many secondary realizations. Firstly, the very concept of “playing from memory” has evolved from being a process that pursues the interiorization of the rhythmic and melodic figures that compose what we call music (playing without any physical memory aid) to a much more emotional, even spiritual involvement of one’s consciousness with the message the particular music tries to convey, its content and not just its form. This it to say that to know the very essence of what a musical excerpt stands for as well as its context is a much more powerful method than to simply learn it by memory: it is playing it by heart. Although the PbH memorization model was designed to improve performance, the obtained results revealed that while this method sharply boosts such traits as focus and accuracy y (which make for better music), it may have damaged other aspects of performing that require an external; awareness, like a performer’s presence on stage for example. Another interesting effect of this research was its lack of selectivity. This means that although the performer tried to apply the PbH memorization model to a select number of excerpts, the method’s nature (as well as the performer’s brain’s nature) made it impossible to avoid some of its principles to bleed into other excerpts, which were not meant to be affected. The Playing by Heart memorization model is considered applicable and useful in learning and performing trumpet orchestral excerpts. Biography: Ines Serrano Diogo was born in Portimao, Portugal, and started playing the trumpet by the age of 8. She finished her trumpet bachelor degree in Escola Superior de Musica de Lisboa (Portugal) in 2012, and is currently finishing her master degree with orchestra specialization at The Royal Conservatoire in The Hague.
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Comparisons of Perspective in the Empfindsamer Stil: How the music of Carl Philipp Emmanuel Bach represents a microcosm of an emerging cultural initiative (2014 ) Kristen Huebner
Name: Kristen Huebner Main Subject: Traverso Research Coaches: Inês de Avena Braga and Jacques Ogg Title of Research: Comparisons of Perspective in the Empfindsamer Stil: How the music of Carl Philipp Emmanuel Bach represents a microcosm of an emerging cultural initiative Research Question: What are the musical tools available to musicians which can be used to unlock the complex understanding of the Empfindsamer Stil? Research Process: My research process has been the result of years working and performing the 1788 Quartets for Keyboard, Flute and Viola by Carl Philipp Emmanuel Bach. Besides a deep musical analysis of these three works, the main body of my research has dealt with the developing style which is commonly associated with this music, that of Empfindsamkeit or Empfindsamer Stil. The English translation equating to “sensitive style” is often associated with the Sturm und Drang, a highly influential literary movement of the 1770s. After reading much of the actual literature of the Sturm und Drang, including Johann Wolfgang Goethe’s Die Leiden des jungen Werthers, I set out to draw a distinction between the terms Empfindsamkeit and Sturm und Drang. Carl Philipp Emmanuel Bach’s ersuch ber die ahre rt das lavier u spielen provided the springboard for my musical analysis of the Quartets and a subsequent categorization of three distinct musical characteristics used to describe the music of the Empfindsamkeit. Summary of Results: Having its origins in literature, the Sturm und Drang aimed to represent an artistic struggle showing the depths and extremes of the human experience, working most often in contradiction with the mainstream Enlightenment ideology of the time, which was founded and based on man’s ability to reason. Breaking away from this restrictive model, the Sturm und Drang influence crept further into cross-disciplines of poetry, theater and painting, yet striking deepest in the most ambiguous and indefinable of arenas, music. The Quartets of Carl Philipp Emmanuel Bach surprised and demanded a more explicit and contemplative attitude in order to perform with any real consciousness or effect. In addition to shifting roles in instrumentation with the keyboard asserting dominance over the supporting flute and viola, I have explored rhythmic manipulation and surprise, in addition to dynamic juxtaposition. Perhaps most taxing for the performer of these Quartets is the abruptness with which one must make changes in mood and character; drastic intervallic leaps, modulation to strange keys and an intentional disruption of the rhythmic pulse all contribute to a sense of impulsiveness, the suggestion of something that cannot be predicted and should be performed with an equal amount of surprise. The presentation will take the form of an informative demonstration combining live musical examples with visual representations of paintings and portraits of key figures in a PowerPoint presentation.
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How to use feedback, advice and judgement after an exam (2015 ) Barbara Bekhof
Abstract Name: Barbara Bekhof Main Subject: Viola Research Coach: Susan Williams Title of Research: How to use feedback, advice and judgement after an exam Research Question: How can feedback, advice and judgement be used in such a way, that it contributes to the learning process of the students? Summary of Results: This research paper is to conclude the study at the Royal Conservatory. This paper answers the question of how to use feedback, advice and judgments during an exam, and during the preparation of it. Feedback is information about how we are doing in our efforts to reach a goal. Important when giving feedback is that the learner is aware of receiving the feedback, and that the comments are objective. Advice is an opinion or recommendation offered as a guide to action. Important when giving advice is that the person receiving the advice is willing to receive advice and understands on what feedback the advice is based. A value judgment is a judgment of the rightness or wrongness of something or someone, or of the usefulness of something or someone, based on a comparison or other relativity. Judgement is an important part of an exam. For students it is important to know what the criteria are, and towards what they have to work to. To understand more of the learning process, different aspects of playing a string instrument are discussed in the fifth chapter. These aspects are technical facility, musicality and performance quality. The different phases in a musician’s preparation are discussed in the sixth chapter. From learning the score till mastering a piece. In this research all those aspects are combined to offer a guideline for juries and guideline for teachers during the preparation. Recommended for the examinations of the Royal Conservatoire would be to draw up a set of criteria, which are clear for the students and for the teachers who will grade the students. Biography: Barbara Bekhof (1991) first started playing the violin at age 6. From age 12 she attended the external preliminary program of the Royal Conservatoire, where she was taught by Koosje van Haeringen and from 2008 viola with Liesbeth Steffens. After graduating from the gymnasium, she went on to study Building Engineering at the TU Delft, while simultaneously continuing the viola. In 2013 she received her bachelor diplomas for both Building Engineering as Viola. Her masters at the Royal Conservatoire enabled her to go on exchange to the Haute Ecole de Musique in Lausanne, where she studied under the renowned violist Alexander Zemtsov. After her return, she continued her master with Michael Zemtsov, as well as the master Urbanism at the TU Delft.
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To beat or not to beat (2017 ) Jean-Loup Gagnon
Name: Jean-Loup Gagnon Main Subject: Harpsichord Research Supervisors: Bert Mooiman, Peter Van Heyghen Title of Research: To beat or not to beat: reflections on musical leadership practices in the 18th century Research Question: What did musical leadership mean in the 18th century? Summary of Results: In the last century, historically informed performance practice has gained more and more popularity within the musical scene. In fact, musicians have being increasingly interested in historical articulation, phrasing, instrumentation, ornamentation, tempi, etc. Surprisingly, historical conducting practices have not been significantly investigated and hardly ever in a practical way. It may be the reason why there is a lack of experimentation in this domain, why even Early Music ensembles are using the modern way of conducting, which is to have an interpretative conductor that stands in front of the group. Would it not also be relevant to know how composers like Mozart, Handel or Bach would have “conducted” their works? Did Mozart conduct his wind serenade “Gran partita” by making gestures like we can see in Forman's movie Amadeus? Can we learn from their practical experience? This research demystifies conducting practices in the 18th century and brings a practical to the subject. Biography: Currently pursuing a Master’s degree in maestro al cembalo at the Royal Conservatoire of The Hague, Jean-Loup Gagnon studies improvisation and leadership from the harpsichord with Patrick Ayrton and harpsichord performance with Fabio Bonizzoni. His researches focus on leadership practices in the 17th, 18th, and 19th centuries and on stylistic streams like the Mannheim School and the Galant Style, which constituted the musical grammar for genius composers such as Mozart.
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Adrien-François Servais’s contribution to the evolution of the cello technique (2016 ) Aurore Montaulieu
Student name and number: Aurore Montaulieu, 3048780 Main subject: Cello Research supervisor: Dr. Anna Scott Research Paper Title: How Adrien-François Servais (1807-1866) Improved the Cello Technique During the 19th Century Research Question: With particular focus on his scores, how did Adrien-François Servais advance cello technique in the middle of the 19th century, and with what implications for modern performers? Summary of Results: Widely considered to have been the 'Paganini of the Cello,' Adrien-François Servais (1807 - 1866) was one of the most famous cellists of the 19th century, and is best known today for his 6 Caprices Op. 11. Many modern performers however are unaware of Servais’s numerous and important contributions to the history of cello construction, playing style, and technique. After a brief overview of notable cellists (including Duport, Romberg, and Dotzauer) and playing techniques (including vibrato, portamento, and bow-holds) that coexisted at the beginning of the 19th century, this research paper goes on to examine Servais’s life and work as an independent concert artist. While Servais did not leave behind any methods or treatises, a close study of contemporaneous accounts of his playing style, technique, instrument preferences, concert programs, and his association with many of the leading composers of his day reveals his enduring contributions to the rise of the cello as a vehicle for the new Romantic virtuoso style. Most notable among these contributions were his standardization of the use of the endpin, his wide-ranging and successful career as a touring performer, and the invaluable impression he left on the younger generation of cellist-composers (including Davidov and Popper). It is however an in-depth analysis of his Fantaisie 'Souvenir de Saint-Pétersbourg' Op. 15 that ultimately reveals the most revolutionary and innovative aspects of his technique and playing style: from his fingering, shifting, and use of harmonics, to his bowing, phrasing, articulation, arpeggiation, use of thumb position, and extroverted approach - elements that have all gone on to form the basis of modern cello playing. During my presentation I intend to provide an overview of these findings, and to demonstrate evidence of Servais's technical and stylistic achievements as revealed by his Fantaisie Op. 15 on my own instrument. Biography: Aurore Montaulieu is a French cellist. Born in Cannes, she started her musical studies at the age of 4. In 2012, she graduated with her Bachelors degree from the Pôle Supérieur of Paris-Boulogne-Billancourt in Hélène Dautry’s class. Aurore is currently in the Orchestra Masters program at the Royal Conservatory of The Hague in Michel Strauss and Jan-Ype Nota’s class. She has had the opportunity to receive guidance from great musicians such as F. Helmerson, G. Hoffman, P. Wispelway and D. Geringas. In 2012, she joined the Orchestre de Paris’s Academy and is a member of the Gustav Mahler JugendOrchester since 2014. Aurore Montaulieu plays a Roberto Masini cello built for her in 2010.
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Performing Classical Music in the 21st Century (2015 ) Alistair Sung
Name: Alistair Sung Main Subject: Classical Cello Research Coaches: Gerard Bouwhuis, Renee Jonker Title of Research: Performing Classical Music in the 21st Century Research Question: Can a reconsideration of presentation, programming and audience relationship influence the response to classical music? Summary of Results: The financial and cultural climate of the past 50 years has changed the way in which classical music is perceived. Where once it was valued as a crucial part of a healthy society, it has now grown isolated from mainstream culture and has been relegated to the periphery of modern cultural life. This paper will examine how these recent cultural and social developments occurred and focus on their effects on the performance of classical music in the 21st century. Through an analysis of new and existing approaches to performance, a framework will be established which will form the basis of a test concert. Data gained from this concert will then be analysed in order to explore the possibility of altering existing concert conventions to respond to the problems facing the performance of classical music. Research will be presented in the form of a research paper. Biography: Alistair began learning the cello in Sydney Australia with Marcus Hartstein and David Pereira. After attending Newtown High School of Performing Arts, Alistair completed his Bachelor Music (honours I)/Bachelor Arts (philosophy) at the University of New South Wales in 2010. On graduating, Alistair was awarded the university medal and his honours thesis, ‘Variety in Performance: A Comparative Analysis of Recorded Performances of Bach’s Sixth Suite for Solo Cello’ was co-published in the Empirical Musicology Review (Ohio State University). Alistair is currently completing a Masters degree at the Koninklijk Conservatorium in The Hague with Larissa Groeneveld.
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Emancipation of the Clarinet (1720-1760) (2018 ) Adrianna van Leeuwen-Steghaus
Name: Adrianna van Leeuwen-Steghaus Main Subject: Historical Clarinet Research Supervisor: Inês de Avena Braga Title of Research: Emancipation of the Clarinet 1720-1760 The transforming role of the two and three keyed clarinet in Sacred Music of the Late Baroque Period Research Question: Can we trace the Baroque Clarinet's role in Sacred Music and is there an obvious progression in the way composers wrote for the instrument beginning in the early 18th century to the instruments demise in the mid 18th century? What was the Baroque Clarinet's role in Sacred Music? Did composers intentioanlly use this instrument and if so for what purpose? Summary of Results: When speaking about the clarinet, the first period of music we naturally associate with it is the Classical. However, few realise that the history of the clarinet begins much earlier in the Baroque, with an instrument that we would today describe as ‘primitive’. The Baroque clarinet was developed around 1700 in Germany. It's repertoire and legacy is confined to about 50 years of music history. Colloquially called the 'Mock Trumpet', the Baroque Clarinet is characterized by a bright and brilliant sound. Some research has been done on the instrument already, particularily on its general history and repertoire. However what remains missing is uncovering the Baroque Clarinet's role in sacred music. Sacred music, particularily cantatas dominated musical life in the 18th century. Cantatas were performed every Sunday as well as on special feasts throughout the ecclesiastical calendar. Over the past two years, I have discovered a trove of cantatas containing parts specifically written for the Baroque Clarinet, some by well-known composers such as Telemann and Graupner and others unknown until now, such as Seibert and Kurz. Coincidentally, most of the composers are of German origin, employed by various cities and/or courts across the German-speaking lands. This research examines the repertoire and attempts to find a progression in the clarinet's use and role. The instruments characteristic timbre meant it shared a symbiotic relationship with the trumpet, but did it ever shed its trumpet association and find its own voice? Through analysis of the various cantata parts, I uncover that the clarinet was in some ways the 'perfect compromise'; able to sound brassy and brilliant when required, while also able to produce a sweet and singing tone. The clarinet was also techinically more capable then its trumpet counterpart, because it was less confined to the harmonic series and able to play quicker notes melodically with more stepwise intervals. In November 2017, the Royal Consrvatorie's Early Music Department premiered two of Telemann's cantatas with clarient parts; Lobet den Herrn TWV 1:1061 and Der Tod ist verschlungen in den Sieg TWV 1:320. Biography: Adrianna van Leeuwen-Steghaus, is a Canadian clarinettist specialising in historical instrument performance. She is a member of two successful chamber ensembles, the Swedish based trio Boxwood & Bows and the Dutch based duo The Küffner Gals. Adrianna graduated with distinction from the University Of Calgary (CAN), obtaining her Bachelor’s degree in modern clarinet performance. She moved to the Netherlands in 2012, to complete a second Bachelor’s degree in Historical Clarinet and Chalumeaux at the Koninklijk Conservatorium in Den Haag. Currently, she is busy completing her Master’s degree and thesis under the tutelage of Professor Eric Hoeprich in the Netherlands.
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Body Language (2016 ) Charlotte Houberg
Name: Charlotte Houberg Main Subject: Classical Singing Research Supervisor: Gerda van Zelm Title of Research: Body language of a singer on stage Research Question: How can a singer on stage use his body language to support his expression? Summary of Results: By the use of different research methods, there have been created ideas and strategies to become aware of your body language and how to use it in a confident way on stage. Body language is, next to singing, an equally important communication tool for singers on stage. It shows knowledge of the movements of the body and understanding of the role or character. The libretto can be translated into body language, so the audience can understand it without knowing exactly what text is sung. It can be concluded that all body parts can be chosen to show a certain mood which fits within the role or character. Gestures do not have to be over- exaggerated, because the audience is able to see and interpret small signs, even from a distance. Consciously chosen body language is easier to decode than spontaneous body language and can be more convincing, even though the singer is not in that certain mood. Body language is part of the luggage of a singer and a tool for showing his expression and intentions. I chose for the form of a research paper, because I would like to share new or expanded knowledge with my colleagues by doing an in-depth research. Biography: Charlotte (1991) takes part in Studio 32, an opera studio of her teacher Henny Diemer. She sang the roles Amor (Cadmus et Hermione), Zerlina (Don Giovanni) and Bess (Porgy and Bess). She had a tour with Sinfonia Rotterdam and sang solo with several Dutch orchestras. In Jordan she performed Miroir de Peine of Andriessen with the Amman Orchestra. She has been invited for chamber concerts and has given song recitals on several stages of the Netherlands. From the oratorio repertoire she sings regularly the Matthew Passion (Bach) and the requiem (Fauré and Mozart). She will sing the role First Witch in the new opera of Andriessen (The Theatre of the World) in LA and Amsterdam.
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Modern vertical thinking (Triad pairs over seventh chords) (2015 ) David Reschofsky
Modern jazz uses triad chords a lot. I would like to know all possible triad substitutions over seventh chords, so I will also examine this in my thesis. What I hear and what I transcribed from modern jazz musicians is that they know the main music systems and the possibilities very well. I will listen to and transcribe solos from my favourite artists and find out what kind of scales and triad combinations they use. I will then examine these systems to discover what kind of triad chords there are and how we can use them in an irregular way. So my main question is, how can I use the concept of triad pairs to express the sound that is in my head?
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The Performer Composer Relation (2014 ) Joao Carlos Ferreira de Miranda Santos
This Research Investigates the musical relation Between Researcher and Performer in the 18th Century and its philosophical assumptions
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From Phrase to Phrasing - a Classical Perspective (2017 ) Jan Willem Nelleke
This paper explores the structure and performance of musical phrases according to sources from the second half of the eigtheenth century. As phrasing is such an essential part of music making it seems curious that there is not much written about it and its application usually taken for granted. This paper wants to address this from the assumption that a better understanding of structure (phrases) will enrich delivery in performance (phrasing). It is written from the viewpoint of a performer with a focus on the practical application of theory. Subjects include repose-moments, cadences, phrase-rhythm, punctuation, notation, skills in phrasing, breathing, and observations on Classical phrase structures and proportions in general. Case studies are provided to demonstrate and test the theory on practical use and extend into less obvious areas like writing song intro's and cadenzas.
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Approaching jazz composition through the music of Billy Strayhorn (2015 ) Leonie Freudenberger
Name: Leonie Freudenberger Main Subject: Jazz Saxophone Research Coach: Karst de Jong Title of Research: Approaching jazz composition through the music of Billy Strayhorn Research Question: What are the most important elements of Billy Strayhorn's compositions? How can I incorporate his compositional approach in my own writing? Billy Strayhorn (1915–1976) was a jazz pianist, composer, arranger, orchestrator and lyricist whose works have influenced the genre of jazz music until today. The research contains two phases: First, the analysis of his compositions. Second, the attempt to compose originals using the detected stylistic, harmonic, melodic and conceptional tools. Considering the enormous oeuvre that Strayhorn produced, it is inevitable to make a selection of songs to analyze. My criteria for this selection are the following: Which songs have become part of the standard repertoire in jazz, performed by various artists throughout the 20th (and 21st) century? Where can I find aural trademarks, which I recognize both as a listener and as a player and which contribute to my personal perception of the “Strayhorn sound”? Can the compositions be reduced to a lead sheet and performed by a small jazz combo without losing their essence? My final intention is not only to compose using Strayhorn-typical elements and tools, but also to write music for myself as a performer and for my group to play it. On longer terms, I hope that I can abstract this method further on and profit from it beyond the results of this research. Biography: Leonie Freudenberger, born 1988 in Baden-Baden (D), has played the alto saxophone since her childhood. She started her professional jazz education at the University of Music in Mannheim in 2008 and came to Den Haag in 2011, where she finished her Bachelor's degree. Apart from her Master studies, she writes music and performs with her own group and takes part in various projects, playing alto and baritone saxophone.
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Forbidden Beauty: Performance Practice of un-notated arpeggio in fortepiano music in late 19th Century (2016 ) Mariko Goto
Name: Mariko Goto Main Subject: Fortepiano Research Supervisor: Bert Mooiman Title of Research: Forbidden Beauty: Performance Practice of un-notated arpeggio in fortepiano music in late 19th Century Research Question: Is it appropriate to arpeggiate a chord when it is not notated, especially in romantic repertory in second half of 19th century? If we can do it, where and how can we add arpeggio? Summary of Results: Modern pianism is quite skeptical to the addition of an arpeggio that is not written in the score. Pianists in the same generation as I am also may have had such the experience of hearing that their teacher say, “Don’t play arpeggio when the composer doesn’t indicate it” or “Don’t break your right and left hand”. Such a strict attitude to the un-notated arpeggio originates from the tendency that the musicology (and musicians) in the late 20th century considered the intentions of composers as the most important thing, and they attributed it to the authentic score like manuscripts, or a first edition. In such a mood, it was not “authentic” to add un-notated arpeggios. Playing un-notated arpeggios was a symbol of over romanticism, and sloppy playing. But there is much evidence that composers themselves added arpeggios, even if they show a strict attitude to the un-notated arpeggio in their remarks. If we look at the treaties, we can see that the un-notated arpeggio has a long tradition from the Baroque and Classical period. It is not a symbol of over-romanticism in the late 19th century, but a tactical tool to express character and affect of pieces. From the remarks of treaties, and early recordings of first half of 20th century, we can see that the character and affect of a piece is a very important element to decide, whether we can use arpeggio or not. Especially in the slow, expressive pieces or sections of a pieces we have many opportunities to add arpeggio. If we consider the tradition and usefulness of un-notated arpeggio, we should feel free to use it, especially on historical keyboard instruments. Biography: Born in Tokyo, Mariko Goto started her modern piano studies in her earliest childhood. She encountered early music, namely fortepiano and cembalo, at Tokyo University of the Arts. After completing her Master degree of Musicology at said university for her musical rhetoric studies about improvisation in Haydn’s works, she devoted herself to the performance of these instruments. Since 2014, she has been pursuing a master’s degree in fortepiano at the Royal Conservatoire of the The Hague under Bart van Oort.
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Frozen Improvisation (2016 ) Juan Manuel Cisneros Garcia
Name: Juan Manuel Cisneros García Main Subject: Forte Piano Research Supervisor: Bart van Oort Title of Research: Frozen improvisation: The Mozart piano variations as a model for improvisation on the Classical Style Summary of Results: The fourteen sets of piano variations composed by Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart are a sort of microcosmos of his whole pianistic output. Their complete composition covered practically his entire lifetime, from 1766 to 1791 and some of them were originated in actual improvisatory performances. Considering also the historically documented connections between the variation genre and the extemporization practices, this research is focused on their study as models for learning improvisation on the Classical style. With this purpose, I am using a concrete methodology that is being developed now in Spain (IEM methodology) that places the improvisation in the core of music education, with special emphasis in the use of patterns extracted from the musical sources. This has been combined with the historically informed performance practice in order to develop a repertory of exercises and proposals to be used as a guided practice for this learning process. Biography: Juan Manuel Cisneros (Málaga, Spain, 1978) is pianist, composer and teacher. He has a Bachelor´s degree on Piano (Conservatoire of Málaga), Phylosophy (University of Málaga) and Composition (Conservatoire of Granada). He completed his studies as composer and pianist in the Centre Acanthes (Metz, France), among other musical institutions. He is currently performing in several ensembles, from early music to jazz, in Spain, France, Holland, Italy and Romania. His passion for historic keyboard instruments led him to the fortepiano and the harpsichord in recent years. He is developing an extensive activity in the field of historic improvisation, with frequent lectures, concerts and workshops in Spain and abroad. He is composition and improvisation teacher at the Conservatoire of Granada and teacher member of the IEM (Music Education Institute) methodology.
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Fingering of the Viennese Double Bass (2016 ) Feng Zhou
ame: Zhou Feng Main Subject: Violone Research supervisor(s): Kate Clark Title of Research: Fingering of the Viennese Double Bass Research Question: What was the historical fingering of the Viennese double bass? Which different effects it would have on different fingerings? What’s the modern solution of fingerings and its influence? Summary of Results: The Viennese Double Bass was a dominant type of double bass used in the Classical Period in Vienna. It usually has 5 string, tuned in F1-A1-D-F#-A, with frets. Unfortunately, we can barely find any historical material that was written down on the fingering of this instrument. Through the analysis of the history of fingerings on various double basses documented in historical methods, I can find the pattern of fingering that is often related to the tuning intervals of the instrument. The Viennese double bass was possibly using a '1-2-4' fingering system. In my research paper, I give the suggestions of specific fingerings, including basic fingerings (scales, arpeggios), exception fingerings (chordal fingering, octave fingering). For octaves, I find the possible solutions by using basic, chordal, extension fingerings and shifting strategy. With excerpts of solo works and orchestral parts, I give further explanation of the fingerings. Finally, I try to point out that the modern tuning of the Viennese double bass could cause alteration of the historical fingerings. Furthermore, it would also change the timbre. Biography: Master student of Violone (Koninklijk Conservatorium, Den Haag) Artist Diploma of Double Bass (China Central Conservatory, Beijing) Master Degree of Journalism (Tsinghua University, Beijing)
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How different techniques bring diverse musical ways to play and teach the repeated chords of Prokofiev's Sarcasms op. 17 n15 ( ) Amaya Oses
Name: Amaya Osés Main Subject: Piano Classical Reseach coaches: Andrew Wright Title of the Reseach: How different techniques bring diverse musical ways to play and teach the repeated chords of Prokofiev's Sarcasms op. 17 n15 Summary of results: Every piece of music can be approached in different ways. This papers examines a passage involving repeated chords from Prokofiev's Sarcasms by the application of several well-known piano methods both in the researcher’s own practice and in a pedagogical situation. This project gives a framework for comparison between the results of the different methods and reflection about the connection between technique and musicianship.
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Poly-rhythmic structures as frameworks for improvisation. (2015 ) Giovanni Bermudez Cardenas
Name: Giovanni Bermudez Main Subject: Jazz Double Bass Research Coach: Jarmo Hoogendijk Title of Research: Poly-rhythmic Structures as Frameworks for Improvisation Research Question: How can poly-rhythmic structures be used as generators of form when composing for improvisation? Summary of Results: When thinking about the relationship between composition and improvisation, a composition can be seen as a set of predetermined musical structures that function as a sort of "map" for the improvisers to navigate, while at the same time providing a cohesive character or "vibe" for the musical performance. The improvisation then occurs in relation to these structures. I want to know how can rhythm be used as the guiding element in the construction of these structures. Particularly how polyrhythms can provide structures that have a clear contour, alternating between moments of tension and release. For that, I have defined the following research question: How can poly-rhythmic structures be used as generators of form when composing for improvisation? In order to answer that question I have looked into the musical traditions of West Africa and Cuba, as well as the work of the saxophonist Steve Coleman. The final product of this research is a series of four compositions for small jazz ensemble in which I try to apply, in my own way, the ideas and concepts compiled during this process. Biography: Giovanni Bermudez is a jazz bass player born and raised in Quito, Ecuador. Initially a self-taught rock musician, he eventually became attracted to the possibilities of improvisation and the rich tradition of Jazz. While studying in Quito, he worked as an independent bass player performing with numerous bands and soloists in jazz, Latin, and pop/rock music. In 2009, looking to develop further skills on the double bass and to challenge himself in a more competitive musical environment, he moved to the Netherlands to pursue studies at the Royal Conservatory of The Hague. The international environment of the Netherlands gave him the opportunity to perform all over Europe.
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Subversive Climes: Exploring the role of exoticism in Les Indes Galantes (2016 ) Bethany Shepherd
Name: Bethany Shepherd Main Subject: Early Music Singing Research Supervisor: Charles Toet Title of Research: Subversive Climes: Exploring the role of exoticism in Les Indes Galantes Research Question: What is the role of exoticism in Les Indes Galantes? Summary of Results: Exoticism in Rameau’s opéra-ballet Les Indes Galantes has three primary functions. By setting the plots of the four independent entrées in real but geographically distant cultures, the librettist Louis Fuzelier was able to introduce new spectacles to the operatic stage, providing novelty for audiences jaded by the tradition of entertainment based on gods and mythology. This dramatic development in turn provided Rameau with the opportunity to manipulate and extend the musical conventions of the time in order to create a style of expression appropriate to depict these exotic characters and locales. A deeper understanding of the context in which Rameau and Fuzelier created this work was has further revealed that the libretto and Rameau’s musical depiction of the characters in Les Incas du Pérou and Les Sauvages reflect the practice in early Enlightenment literary and philosophical cirlces of idealising exotic cultures to criticise eighteenth century French society. These conclusions offer modern performers a wider range of interpretive options when approaching this work, allowing for a more nuanced performance which brings together the elements of drama, music, philosophy and entertainment in a cohesive manner. Biography: Australian soprano Bethany Shepherd studied Classical Singing at the Queensland Conservatorium of Music, under renowned Wagnerian soprano Lisa Gasteen. After obtaining a Bachelor degree with distinction in Australia, Bethany moved to The Netherlands to undertake studies in Early Music at the Koninklijk Conservatorium. She is currently completing a Master of Early Music Singing, studying with Rita Dams, Jill Feldman, Peter Kooij, Michael Chance and Pascal Bertin.
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Singing in the Music Theory Lesson: A model for how singing can be used as an effective teaching tool for a practical approach to the subject of music theory (2016 ) Ewan Gibson
Name: Ewan Gibson Subject: Music Theory Research Supervisor: Laszlo Némes Title of Research: Singing in the Music Theory Lesson - A model for how singing can be used as an effective teaching tool for a practical approach to the subject of music theory Abstract: In a typical music theory programme, the act of singing is often confined to the single skill of sight-reading prima vista. My background as a school teacher has taught me that singing can be used in a variety of ways to help children to learn skills such as reading and aural skills and so my wish is to investigate ways in which singing can be used in a music theory lesson at a conservatoire level. In the last few years at the Koninklijk Conservatorium (Royal Conservatoire of The Hague), the music theory department has been investigating ways in which skills can be transferred across disciplines. One change that has been made is that many music theory related subjects are now taught as a single subject. Teachers are now free to make connections where ever they are found. My own interest is on the use of singing as a tool to achieve these ends. My own investigation, as show in this research paper, will show models of lessons that can be created where singing is used as a core part of the lesson. A range of skills can be developed and theoretical concepts understood when singing activities are sequenced well and taught carefully. The result will be a model for other teachers to use and adapt for their own teaching. In addition, the result of the research has also produced a collection of vocal material for teachers to use in lesson in order to encourage singing with advise on how to use it within a lesson. Biography Ewan L. Gibson comes originally from Wales in the United Kingdom. His previous studies include Bachelor of Music (University of Exeter), Postgraduate Certificate of Education (Oxford Brookes University), and Master of Music (Royal Conservatoire of Scotland). He has worked in the field of music education as a teacher in schools and conservatoires. As a qualified school teacher, Ewan has taught in a variety of schools in the U.K. and in international schools in The Netherlands. These have included everything from pre-school to 18 years old. In addition, he has worked for the Royal Conservatoire of Scotland, The National Youth Choir of Scotland and the Royal Scottish National Orchestra as a musicianship teacher, choral conductor and singing teacher. He has also given many workshop shops to music teachers on the use of singing in schools and teaching music literacy skills to children.
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Catch and Release: Field Recordings as Source for Instrumental Composition (2016 ) Yvonne Freckmann
The richness and variety of sound in field recordings has inspired numerous electro-acoustic and soundscape compositions, but what about the traditional composition realm? Is there a way to translate for and combine soundscapes with another medium? “How can field recordings be used as a source for instrumental compositions?” is the main research question under investigation here, which developed out of my creative pursuits in composing for instruments and field recordings. The first method I personally applied was to transcribe a field recording by ear for a mixed ensemble for Train, which simultaneously played the transcription with the original audio. The process and results of this piece prompted me to think and read more about mimesis in music, and how the two worlds of electro-acoustic/soundscape and instrumental music can combine. This research paper contains a short introduction to the historical context of mimesis in music (vocal/instrumental and electro-acoustic) to provide the connection of current trends to the past. To investigate the main approaches I proceeded to analyze and categorize music of field recordings with instruments. Using these analysis tools and categories, I investigated examples within roughly the past sixty years of pieces that use field recordings as source for instrumental music, be it for transcription, score, background, or for live interaction. The research results are detailed in four chapters, “Analysis Tools”, “Five Categories”, and two chapters on original compositions. The concepts of place and live versus pre-recorded sound were interesting to investigate as well.
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What is Music Theater? (2015 ) Claudia Hansen
Name: Claudia Hansen Main Subject: T.I.M.E. Research Coaches: Ines van der Scheer and Arnold Marinissen Title of Research: What is Music Theater? (A definition by a staging musician.) Research Question: What is the difference between Music Theater – the modern performance art form and sub-genre of Music Theater – and other hybrid art forms that include musical and theatrical elements grouped under the hypernym ‘Music Theater’? And, is it possible to construct a definition for Music Theater? Research Process: I used the word ‘music theater’ to describe the hypernym and the word ‘Music Theater’ to describe the subgenre. First, I researched the history and the evolution of the tendencies in Music Theater as hypernym genre and made a historical overview from the beginning of Music Theater up until the emergence of the subgenre ‘Music Theater’. I focused on the development of Music Theater as a subgenre. In order to find out what the essence of Music Theater is, I analyzed the three major components of Music Theater. I made an overview of challenges that a creator faces in Music Theater and proposed several solutions, which are based on reasoning and existing performances. I tried to see as many performances as possible, which in the widest sense could be considered to be Music Theater, in order to get a wide overview of present day streams and chose six performances that in my opinion are perfect examples to illustrate my concept of Music Theater, and analyzed the various components of these works (such as music, visuals and text) in detail. Finally, I worked towards a new definition of Music Theater. Summary of Results: Music Theater is a heterogeneous but symbiotic performance genre, which is constructed with a multitude of art forms. The name might suggest that the main focus lies on music and theater. However, any existing art form can be included. The art forms can be divided into three major categories called components: music, theater and visuals. Each art form is equally important as Music Theater is based on the structural equality of voices. Music Theater is constructed by first distilling four innate languages out of the art forms and then applying them to either the same art form or inducing them into another art form: musical language, verbal language, body language and visual language. Each language element has a valuable existence of its own and is an autonomous element of the performance that adds a particular atmosphere to the whole picture. The languages are either layered in the performance or the aspects of the performance, such as the protagonists (human or material) or the art forms themselves. Music Theater is a performance genre that rather focuses on the impact that it has on the audience than on the compositional art forms. It is outcome-based and not medium-based. This creates space for each audience member to have a completely personal experience and interpretation of the Music Theater performance.
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Holding the violin and how it influences sound and playing in historical performance practice. Historical perspectives. (2016 ) Agnieszka Papierska
Name: Agnieszka Papierska Main subject: Baroque violin Title of research: Holding the violin and how it influences sound and playing in historical performance practice. Historical perspectives. Research coach: Margaret Urquhart Research questions: How much would the sound of the violin change with holding it in different position? Could this be a tool of expression? Does the way we hold the instrument influence other choices we make about performance practice e.g. regarding fingering, bowing? Could this knowledge be used in performance practice today? Summary of results: During the baroque and classical period many different ways of holding the violin existed, often at the same time. This paper investigates the way in which the different positions of holding the instrument could change the sound of it. After studying at sources and making experiments with different posture it can be confirmed that that the sound changes with different ways of holding the violin. The technique and interpretation are also affected. The main conclusion is that violin technique is not unchangeable. We can adjust it in order to develop sound that we desire. Biography: Agnieszka is an accomplished and experienced chamber music and orchestral musician. She started her professional career at a very early age. While still a student in Poland she collaborated with many professional orchestras where she worked with world-class conductors and soloists. After completing her Bachelor's diploma in modern violin an interest in historical performance practice let to her move to the Netherlands in order to study in the early music department of The Hague Royal Conservatory. In 2012 she also completed the master studies in Wroclaw Academy of Music in Poland. Currently she works with Theresia Youth Baroque Orchestra in Italy and also performs with other groups in the Netherlands and abroad. She plays an anonymous 18th century violin from the Klingenthal region.
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The violin-type fingering and oblique left hand position in the history of cello technique (2015 ) Paulina Ptak
Name: Paulina Ptak Main Subject: Baroque Cello Research Coaches: Maggie Urquhart, Job ter Haar Title of Research: The violin-type fingering and oblique left hand position in the history of cello technique Research Question: what were the possible reasons for the application of diatonic fingerings and violin-like left hand position in the history of the cello technique? Summary of Results: Before 1800, cellists did not have a consistent manner for fingering scales with the left hand. From the origins of the instrument till the beginning of the nineteenth century different systems were used. One of the styles seemed to be more identified with the violin than with the cello technique. It was represented by fingering and left hand position, different than used today. By looking at the history of development of the cello fingering I will try to answer questions about possible reasons of applying violin-like fingering on the cello. I will examine methods employed on early bass instruments, much debated system proposed by Corrette, and Lanzetti’s and Baumgartner’s approach which transitions the diatonic and chromatic systems. I will see how Romberg and others, even though fingering had evolved to the final level, applied oblique violin-like, left hand position until the beginnings of twentieth century. Finally I will look at the examples from cello repertoire which contain fingerings, and I will analyze them in terms of the system used and possible ways of execution. Biography: Paulina Ptak embarked upon her musical education in two of the most important Polish musical centres – the city of Cracow and Wroclaw. After completing her Master’s degree, she decided to specialise in baroque, classical and early romantic repertoire performed on authentic instruments. Her motivation to a historically informed approach was inspired by the unique timbre of period instruments. Currently she studies baroque cello for a Master’s degree with Jaap ter Linden. Paulina is interested in the history of cello technique from eighteenth until twentieth century.
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The advent of the transverse flute in Italy and its use in mixed consorts during the sixteenth and early seventeenth centuries (2015 ) Giuditta Isoldi
ABSTRACT Title of Research: The advent of the transverse flute in Italy and its use in mixed consorts during the sixteenth and ear-ly seventeenth centuries Research Question: Which were the possible combinations of instruments that included flute and which occasions saw performances of these mixed consorts? Summary of results: The performance of vocal polyphony on instruments during the sixteenth century appears to be guided by two main ideas. On the one hand, musicians tried to imitate the a cappella choir with homogeneous instrumental consorts, or whole consorts, where the instruments belonged to the same family. On the other hand, they tried to maintain the polyphonic texture clear, letting instruments with a very different timbre play in a mixed choir, or mixed consort. Based on a wide array of sources (letters, chronicles, iconography, inventories, instruction treatises, and surviving instruments) my Research Paper investigates the possibilities of combining the flute with other instruments and with voices in mixed consort settings. My main conclusion is that whole and mixed consorts did not follow a completely separate development, but the two choirs would often overlap and integrate in many different combinations, with much freedom and invention. This consideration should encour-age modern performers of secular Italian music of the sixteenth century to keep their mind open to the possibility of transforming a cappella compositions into colorful ensembles mixing voices and different instruments. Biography: Giuditta Isoldi studied at the Conservatory of Florence, where she graduated in Flute with Paolo Zampini. In 2010 she moved to the Netherlands where she focused her studies on Historical in-formed Performance Practice of the flute and she obtained a Bachelor in Traverso with Barthold Kuijken at the Royal Conservatory of The Hague. Next to Traverso, she studies baroque Oboe with Frank de Bruine. She is currently attending a Master in Traverso at the Royal Conservatory of The Hague with Barthold Kuijken, Kate Clark and Wilbert Hazelzet.
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Proposing Live Electronics as an Alternative to Larger Performance Set-Ups (2014 ) Mario Garcia Cortizo
Name: Mario García Cortizo Main Subject: Classical and Contemporary Percussion Research Coaches: Anna Scott and Richard Barrett Title of Research: Proposing Live Electronics as an Alternative to Larger Performance Set-Ups Research Question: How can the inclusion of live electronics reduce required equipment while increasing performer efficiency? Research Process: After deciding on the topic of my research, I began reading and collecting all kinds of information related to the historical relationship between the arts and artists during major social and financial crises of the 20th Century. This included books, websites, journal and magazine articles, and museum exhibitions. In a practical sense, during the first year of the research process I was mainly focused on trying out different things by experimenting with live electronics both in improvised and concert music. For my second year, I have commissioned a new piece involving percussion and live electronics to be performed by composition student Siamak Anvari. I will also be the second person ever to play Hugo Morales’ piece 150pF, “for body capacitance and amplification system.” This piece involves a new instrument that I built myself, consisting of four jack connectors that are split into a four-channel system. As a complement for the program, I am doing a reduction of Frederic Rzewski’s Coming Together for one single player and an actress. Summary of Results: Throughout this text we have seen different proposals that have come out of limitations faced by artists during crisis periods: where creativity is forced to develop in very significant ways in order to keep creating pieces, performances - art that riches everybody, regardless of culture, politics, age, or other aspects. These limitations have provided artists with a lot of new instruments, technologies and techniques: tools that have helped composers and performers to develop new languages and frameworks within which to organize many different materials. Is very important to point out that the use of non-conventional instruments and live electronics can be considered when there are limitations, but we do not have to use these resources just because of the presence of a limitation, but rather as a part of an on-going research process that leads us to these resources as part of a particular creative solution. After going through all the practical examples experimented with and contained in this research, we can conclude that live electronics and non-conventional instruments are indeed an alternative to larger performance set-ups, not only when the economic situation is unfavorable, but even as a matter of taste.
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Vladislav Solotarjow and the Russian way of playing the accordion: a case study (2016 ) Elisa van Kesteren
Abstract Name: Elisa van Kesteren Research supervisor: Stefan Petrovic Title of the Research: The Russian way of playing the accordion: a case study related to the Chambersuite of Vladislav Solotarjow Research question: Does the Russian way of playing the bayan exist and if so, how can I achive this in my own artistic practice? Summary of the results: Russian music is very particular. Through the centuries of this huge country’s history, art has always been of great importance, no matter what the political situation was. The world still honors their cultural heritage, their literature, dance and music. Russian music has always touched and inspired me so it was obvious to specialize during my master in this subject. Becoming myself a performing musician I wanted to investigate what this Russian music is about. What are the characteristics and how do Russian performers play? I wanted to get as close as possible to the ‘Russian way of playing’. Focusing on Vladislav Solotarjow’s ‘Chambersuite’ or ‘Sentimental pieces to Alexander Blok’, made me develop my Russian way of playing. I have done this through listening, analyzing and comparing recordings, from Mika Vayrynen a Scandinavian bayanist and one of Russia’s most important bayanists Friedrich Lips and making my own recordings. This research has proved to me that the Russians play very expressive, with a lot of passion and freedom. Both their music and their instrument are very colorful. I have achieved many of these characteristics in my own playing, even adding my own personal style to it in the end. Only the colorfulness of sound was still missing sometimes. Wondering about my technique and musical decisions, I took the chance to compare the two instruments with each other. My accordion built in Western Europe (Castelfidardo, Italy) versus the Russian-built Bayan (Moscow). It was really helpful to investigate the history of the instrument, the history of Russia and their music in order to get as close as possible to the Russian way of playing. Furthermore, reading about Solotarjow’s life, analysing his composition and listening to different recordings, greatly improved my understanding of this music. These things have helped me to develop my artistic practice. The part of the research that directly involved my artistic practice has been of great value for me. It has enriched my expressive pallet by including more freedom in my playing in many different aspects. I have concluded that it is possible to achieve the Russian way of playing. I have also found that besides having background information about the history of the country, knowledge about the composer and the composition, it is important to have or to imagine the Russian soul. Next to this, it is also important to be open to a different way of playing. A way of playing that might be unfamiliar to a performer. Biography: My name is Elisa van Kesteren and was born in Leeuwarden, The Netherlands. I started playing the accordion at the age of eight. After graduating for the Bachelor Degree here at the Royal Conservatory in 2014, I continued studying with An Raskin and will graduate for the Master degree this year. I am a member of the very recently founded accordion ensemble “The Blackboxes”, have a great interest for Russian but also contemporary music and teach at the moment in various music schools.
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Performing modern music (2016 ) Pieter van Loenen
Name: Pieter van Loenen Main Subject: Violin Research supervisor: Stefan Petrovic Title of Research: Performing modern music Research Question: How should you go about performing modern music? Summary of results: In this paper, I have approached the fundamental question of how to go about performing modern music from different perspectives. Looking at the writings of Stravinsky and Schoenberg teaches us that there are different ideas about the role a performer should have. Stravinsky would ideally have a performer execute music and not ‘interpret’ it, while Schoenberg expects more expressive input from the performer. However, we have also seen that Stravinsky’s allergy against ‘interpretation’ probably stems from bad experiences with performers interpreting his music the wrong way. Present-day performers agree that his music – or any music, for that matter: the same principles apply to music of all ages – does need to be interpreted by the performer, but in the correct style. Interpretation of a score is not an exact science. However, that does not mean it cannot go wrong. The prime directive of interpretation is that it should not go against the literal text of the score. Since notation is almost never complete, other methods of interpretation can be used to fill in the gaps. When textual interpretation does not provide enough information, the performer can resort to contextual interpretation: the context of the piece (e.g. sung text, or a structural analysis) or the context of the composer’s work in general, i.e. his style, or language. Other methods that can be used in connection with these basic types of interpretation include speaking with the composer or listening to recordings of the composer or with the composer’s approval. This last method can be problematic, since more information is always required on the value a particular recording should have: is this exactly what the composer intended or is it just acceptable to the composer within the boundaries they set? All performers I spoke with agreed that the final step a performer should take is to make the music their own. This may seem in contradiction with the principle that a performer should always aim to reproduce the composer’s wishes; a principle that we perhaps inherited from Stravinsky. However, it makes sense when you think about it. When performing a piece, you automatically interpret the score using whatever methods are appropriate when you decide for yourself what the composer must have had in mind when he wrote it down. When you have uncovered this interpretation, and have learned the language of the composer, you must then speak this language to convey the composer’s story (as you interpret it) to the audience. That last line of communication is something entirely in the hands of the performer and that automatically “implicates the performer’s personality”, as Reinbert de Leeuw puts it. This is not problematic or contradictory, as long as the performer, when speaking the language, always remains faithful to the will of the composer. Biography: Pieter van Loenen is a Dutch violinist who graduated his bachelor’s cum laude at the Royal Conservatoire in The Hague as a student of Vera Beths. He won 1st prize at the Prinses Christina Competition in 2010 and was awarded 2nd prize and the Audience prize at the Dutch National Violin Competition in 2016. He has appeared as a soloist with several orchestras throughout the Netherlands, including the Rotterdam Philharmonic Orchestra, Domestica Rotterdam and the Youth Orchestra of the Netherlands. He has a special affinity with performing contemporary music.
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A More Sincere Brahms: An Exploration of Widening Expressive Possibilities in the Opus 120 Clarinet Sonatas. (2015 ) Raissa Fahlman
Name: Raissa Fahlman Main Subject: Classical Clarinet Research Coach: Anna Scott Title of Research: A More Sincere Brahms: An Exploration of Widening Expressive Possibilities in the Opus 120 Clarinet Sonatas. Research Question: What might documentary and sounding evidence of the performing styles of Johannes Brahms and his contemporaries reveal to modern performers about amplifying expression via increased tempo flexibility in Brahms’s Opus 120 Clarinet Sonatas. Given this evidence, what ideological and practical factors might inhibit modern performers from incorporating this evidence in their own interpretations today? Summary of Results: The exploration of documentary and sounding evidence relating to the performance style of Johannes Brahms and his contemporaries reveals much to modern performers about the difference in performance styles between the nineteenth century and our own. The documentary and sounding evidence examined in this research project demonstrates that Brahms and his contemporaries played within a much wider spectrum of expressive possibilities, revealing more accelerandi, ritardandi, and independence between voices, than our controlled modern interpretation of Brahms would allow. Ideological and practical factors however discourage modern performers from implementing this evidence into their own performances: pressures of fidelity, authenticity, text-centricity, and the diminished role of performers as compared to composers have all contributed to the constant scrutiny of performers' interpretative choices, and have increased the risks associated with performances viewed as expressively licentious.  Practical application of this research via documented performance experiments however shows that modern performers can, when aware of the above historical evidence as well as the ideological pressures they face, implement stylistic tools from the past into modern interpretations of Brahms's works. For my own performances of the Brahms Opus 120 Sonatas, this research project has informed my interpretation, resulting in recordings of increased fluidity of phrasing, a more expansive range of expressive freedom, and an overall stylistic shift towards greater artistic freedom and a natural interpretive flow that is less hindered by societal pressures. My recordings also demonstrate that this research is not only relevant within the Opus 120 Sonatas, but transferrable across all of Brahms’s music. The goal of this research is not only to expand expressivity in my own performances, but to offer this evidence to other performers who may struggle with the question of expressivity when performing Brahms as well.  Biography: Raissa Fahlman is a devoted clarinet soloist, chamber and orchestral musician. She has participated in several world premieres as a member of chamber ensembles, large ensembles and as a featured soloist. Recent musical commitments have included two Long Term Creative Music Residencies at the Banff Centre in Alberta, Canada, where she was an Artist in Residence. Raissa is an alumni of the University of Calgary where she graduated with distinction with a Bachelor of Music degree, and was awarded for excellence in her musical study by twice receiving the XL 103.1 Newcap Award in Music, as well as numerous scholarships for academic excellence. She is currently a masters student at the Koninklijk Conservatorium in The Hague. 
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The Unplayable Notes of JS Bach (2015 ) Oonagh Lee
Today there is little doubt that the oboe was one of Bach's most favoured instruments, and that it was an instrument with which he was extremely familiar. Yet, in spite of this, Bach composed numerous works which includes notes that are not playable on the model of oboe that we know were used during his lifetime. Why did Bach write notes that are generally regarded today as unplayable, or perhaps rather ‘unperformable’ due to the quality of both sound and intonation when produced on a contemporary copy of a historical instrument? This is a problem which has been somewhat confined to the footnotes of Bach scholarship but it nonetheless poses very important and relevant questions for the historical oboist, and in fact potentially for the Bach musician and scholar at large.
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How Do You Swing a Quarter Note? An Analysis of the Great Walking Bassists of the 1950s and 60s. (2014 ) Steven Zwanink
Name: Steven Willem Zwanink Main Subject: Jazz Double Bass Research Coach: Patrick Schenkius Title of Research: How do you Swing a Quarter Note? An Analysis of the Great Walking Bassists of the 1950s and 60s. Research Question: In theory, a bass player's walking quarter notes should not swing, as they are not syncopated like eighth notes are for example; syncopation being a necessary condition of what it is to swing, in that it allows for the long-short lilt that people identify with swing music. In practice however, it is evident that certain bassists are able to create a swing feeling, through a highly complex, and often idiosyncratic approach to quarter note placement within the 'big beat,' as well as to sound production and articulation. By using sonic visualization software such as Audacity, my goal is to shed light on the unique and often highly mysterious properties behind swinging bass lines: are there strategies in common between swinging bassists, or does each performer swing in their own inimitable way; do swinging bass lines rely on a temporal tension between bassist and drummer; and to what extent are the timbral properties of an instrument and the attack with which a string is engaged relevant? Research Process: My research process involves four phases: Firstly, selecting contrasting examples of swinging bass players from the 1950s and 1960s; secondly, studying selected examples using Audacity, creating a visual data set that will then be used to examine what the similarities and differences are between each bassist's approach to swinging quarter notes; thirdly, examining whether the push and pull of swinging quarter notes results from either tension or synchronicity between a bassist and a drummer, as well as what effect the tonal shape of the quarter notes the bassist plays, as related to timbre and attack, have on swing feel; and fourthly, examining my own instincts with regards to the spectrum and parameters of the various swinging quarter notes of each bassist studied. Summary of Results: I have recently discovered in my own playing, that regardless of which drummer with whom I am playing, that my time feel needs to remain strong and unchangeable by what it is they are doing. This allows me to swing immediately and consistently on my own, or with whomever I am playing, provided the drummer is competent. All of this together answers my initial questions of: Do swinging bass lines rely on a temporal tension between bassist and drummer? No. Can the bassist swing his quarter notes all on his own? Yes. To what extent are the timbral properties of an instrument and the attack with which a string is engaged relevant? Extremely. In undertaking this study I have had the opportunity to think critically about a major parameter of jazz bass performance that is highly ephemeral and rarely quantified, though at the end of this project I now realize that that major parameter, while reliant on time, is actually sound and articulation.
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Adapting Telemann’s unaccompanied violin fantasias to the guitar - an investigation of transcriptional methods (2015 ) Thomas Heimstad
Name: Thomas Heimstad Main Subject: Classical Guitar Research Coach: Patrick van Deurzen Title of Research: Adapting Telemann’s unaccompanied violin fantasias to the guitar - an investigation of transcriptional methods Research Question: “Which considerations does a guitarist have to make when playing and transcribing G. P. Telemann’s 12 Fantasias for unaccompanied violin?” Research Summary: Transcription is a very important part of the classical guitar tradition, as most of the original repertoire for the guitar has been transcribed from the manuscript. This is because the composers did not always have complete mastery of the guitar. The transcriptions of early music provided guitarists in the early 20th century, with a valuable addition to an otherwise sparse repertoire. This contributed to bring the guitar into the classical limelight, and its recognition as a serious instrument ensued. One genre of music which has been, and still is, popular to adapt to the guitar, is the unaccompanied solo pieces from the Baroque era. The implied polyphony of the solo violin music is often possible to realise on the guitar. This research investigates the different aspects of the transcriptional methods, specifically when working with music for unaccompanied violin. By using Carlo Marchione’s transcription of G. P. Telemann’s first Fantasia as an example, an analysis of and a comparison with the urtext sheds light on the different decisions, which are involved in the process of making a functional version for the guitar. The presentation will include visual and auditory explanations of the different possibilities, excerpts from an interview with Marchione, and examples from the score analysis presented through PowerPoint. Biography: Thomas was born in 1989 in Bergen, Norway and started playing the guitar at the age of 7. His guitar lessons started with Tino Andersen, continued with professor Stein-Erik Olsen at the Griegacademy of Bergen, followed by one year of Erasmus exchange with professor Marco Socías at Musikene in San Sebastián, Spain, and finally he enrolled in the master class of professor Zoran Dukic at the Royal Conservatoire in Den Haag, The Netherlands.
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Jiří Čart (Georg Czarth) and his Flute Sonata in D minor (2014 ) Michaela Kouřilová
Name: Michaela Kouřilová Main Subject: Traverso Research Coaches: Inês de Avena Braga and Donna Agrell Title of Research: Jiří Čart (Georg Czarth) and his Flute Sonata in D minor Research Questions: What is the current status of research on the life of Jiří Čart as an émigré musician? Is it possible to establish bibliographic control of this research, and outline the major deficits in existing literature? By examining Čart's writing for flute, and in particular his D minor Sonata, is it possible to define the characteristics of his compositional style? Is there a further link between his output and his position in various European ensembles, suggesting a development in line with other composers? Research Process: Musical emigration was quite characteristic in Czech musical life in the eighteenth century, but was not a completely new phenomenon. Throughout history Czech emigrants, such as Jan Václav Stamic, František Benda or Josef Mysliveček, came to well-deserved fame, but others await a return to modern appreciation. This is surely the case when we consider the life and work of Jiří Čart (1708-c.1778). Despite the contemporary success and reputation, Čart’s name has fallen into insignificance. No thematic catalogue has ever been attempted, leaving performers with no basis for modern performance, and thus audiences with limited opportunities to hear and discover his music. This thesis is potentially a model for further extrapolation of his output and a beginning of a more developed research path. However, the scope of this current document is limited, and therefore centres on Čart’s flute Sonata in D minor. Summary of Results: This work provides detailed information about the professional life of the violinist, flutist and composer Jiří Čart, which has yet to be considered in English. This information is embedded in the historical context, providing an overall picture of the social situation in the eighteenth century for émigré musicians from the Czech lands such as Čart. The so- called ‘Czech Musical Emigration’ is a very important ingredient of European music history, which partly influenced the direction and the onset of classicism as we now see it. Čart spent his adult life following his musical talents and opportunities as an émigré. In doing so, he occupied several important posts in major European orchestras and establishments. New details about his life and compositions are uncovered in this work, which is accompanied by a critical edition of his ‘Solo à Flauto Traverso è embalo’ in D minor. This edition was prepared using several variant texts from the eighteenth century, as the sonata exists only in contemporary manuscript copies, as well as a transcription for violin. Disseminated throughout European libraries, the work shows a mature compositional style, with the idiomatic knowledge necessary to craft a showpiece for the flute, allowing the performer to engage with, and enlighten the audience.
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Exploring the space within intervals: an approach on different ways of shifting on cello (2016 ) Alexis Bove
After listing the different ways of shifting and looking for direct applications in the repertoire, my goal was to enhance the accuracy of my shifts. Looking for different approaches in order to raise accuracy brought me to three different conceptions about practicing. The first approach refers to have a clear idea of the body movement required to achieve the different types of position change. However, according to recent studies, this approach using an internal focus (focus directed to the movement itself) tends to be less effective than using an external focus (focus directed to the effect of the movement on the environment). Therefore the second approach consists in anticipating the sound as an external focus as well as developing the geography of the instrument. Nevertheless, anticipating the sound and knowing where a sound is located on the instrument does not include a musical context. Consequently the last approach is related to the goal conception as well as the practice of the musical intention. My main conclusion is that musical intention should be the main concern of the artist in his practice, which will lead to a more authentic approach in his artistic development. Besides, I encourage musicians to use goal setting in their daily practice to develop awareness of their intention, which will help to have a better view of what method to use to reach the desired result. The last approach which is motivated by the musical intention should encourage teachers to use instructions based on an external focus in order to help the student finding his own voice in music.
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The use of Bel Canto singing in the Italian opera of the XVIII century (2015 ) Mariana Andrade Pimenta
Name: Mariana Andrade Pimenta Main Subject: Early Music Singing Research Coach: Inês de Avena Braga Title of Research: The technical principles of Bel Canto in the 18th and 19th centuries: an experimental case study on dynamic range Research Question: How did the vocal exercises from Bel Canto singing influence my singing technique, especially in the dynamic range associated with pitch? Summary of Results: The format chosen by the author for this investigation was the Research Paper, as this study required an investment on knowledge about Bel Canto singing technique and the application of the latest into her singing practice, which resulted into a deep reflection and reached new conclusions. The focus of the practical sessions of the author was on her dynamic range. The purpose was to increase flexibility in her dynamic range in the different registers of the voice. The research went through the following process: (1) an audio recording of G. F. Händel aria: “Se Pietà di me non senti”, from the opera Giulio Cesare; (2) in this same phase of the research, she used the software Voice Profiler 5.1 to record her Voice Range Profile (VRP), the same piece and the vowel /a/, throughout the vocal registers, exploring the complete dynamic range of her voice; (3) after three months of practicing specific exercises designed to train the dynamic range, the same recordings were made and also a comparison with the first ones. The results indicated that the training had an impact: An increase of flexibility in realizing Messa di Voce was verified in the author’s middle vocal register. This impact did not happen in the highest vocal register, where technical differences were not detected by the VRP recording. The latest result is also applicable in the Händel aria. This method has proved to be beneficial in the middle section of the author’s vocal range. The appliance of this method is a work in process, which the author believes that it should bring more beneficial results; it offered the author a much bigger awareness of the breathing system, which resulted in a better quality Messa di Voce. The knowledge gained from the sources from the 18th and 19th centuries, guided the practical study in this investigation. In future studies, the author wishes to further research Italian vocal technique and use this important knowledge of historical information by transferring it to her singing practice. The outcome of the present study is an interesting interdisciplinary fusion between Old Italian vocal pedagogy of Bel canto singing and advanced vocal technology. Biography: Mariana Pimenta is a soprano born in Madeira Island, Portugal. She graduated in Classical singing in Aveiro, Portugal in 2011 and started her specialization in Early Music Singing at the Royal Conservatoire of The Hague in 2012. As a performer Mariana has been performing as a soloist and in ensemble singing, in some countries, as The Netherlands, Portugal, Italy and Ecuador.
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Combining Coco, Arranging for Het Coco Collectief (2014 ) Jannelieke Schmidt
Name: Jannelieke Schmidt Main Subject: Classical Singing Research Coach: Patrick van Deurzen Title of Research: Combining Coco, Arranging for “Het Coco Collectief” Research Question:How do I arrange from a market, artistic, voice technique and stylistic point of view mostly single-voiced by piano accompanied music for “Het Coco Collectief” which consists of five sopranos and one pianist? Research Process: In order to develop my skills, theoretic knowledge and insight in the process of making arrangements I studied sources concerning music theory and chord writing, I made several arrangements, I interviewed arrangers and singers, I had my fellow Coco colleagues answer questions about their preferences concerning singing in the ensemble and I analysed my arrangements. Summary of Results: My paper contains all the information I gathered over a two year research period. It has become a little handbook of tips, tricks and rules. I gained skill and knowledge mainly through trial and error, rehearsals with the ensemble and analysing my interviews and questionnaires. I arranged three pieces by Rossini (La pastorelle delle Alpi, La Danza, La legend de Marguerite) one piece by William Bomcom (Amor) one piece by Johannes Röntgen (Op een Kwal) and one piece by Bizet (Adieux de l’hotesse Arabe). I used La Danza en La legend de Marguerite as material to compare arrangements before and after my research in order to detect differences in choice making and using gained knowledge and skill. I used Op een Kwal en Adieux de l’hotesse Arabe in order to explain how a piece changes through a rehearsal process and adapting the piece for either stage of radio. Through talking to the arrangers and working on my pieces together with my coco colleagues and my research coach I found what I was looking for: skill. From the beginning of this research I was looking for justification of my choices. I found that for me to feel secure of my work I needed those two years of thinking that rules is all I needed. That if I could explain an idea by saying it there because of a style or historical context, from a voice technical of personality choice, from Coco’s image or other peoples opinion my arrangement would be good enough. If I could find arguments and explanations for why I did what I did, I should not have to justify why I dare to rearrange already ‘perfect’ repertoire. I created the handbook, containing tips tricks and rules: music theory, all the knowledge shared with me during interviews, Coco’s preferences, all the rules are there. Everything in order to be able to let go of them if it pleases me. My choices are still based on knowledge but now I can consciously use or not use the rules. I have developed a greater trust in my own artistic ideas about the pieces I arranged. I have developed a greater understanding of what it is to write for this ensemble, for these people. And as said before I have created a little booklet of rules for anyone who wants to arrange for voices and piano. During my presentation Het Coco Collectief will sing both La Danza and Adieux de l’hotesse Arabe.
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A Study of Basso Continuo Instrumentation in Baroque Cello Sonatas With a Focus on Jean-Baptiste Barrière (2016 ) Evan Buttar
Main Subject: Baroque Cello Research Coach: Johannes Boer Research Question: What basso continuo instrumentation possibilities exist in baroque cello sonatas, and specifically in the works of Jean-Baptiste Barrière? Basso continuo is an essential part of baroque music, but the instrumentation of it is often ignored or dismissed. All too often, modern performers play with harpsichord and cello without considering the other options. This research paper investigates what the most common instrumentations for the basso continuo were in France and Italy, as well as what exceptions were made. The goal of the paper is to have a better understanding as to what instrument combinations can be added to baroque cello sonatas, and specifically to those of Jean-Baptiste Barrière. This composer was chosen because of the inventiveness, virtuosity, and unique nature of his music. Since there is little evidence relating directly to the cello, the continuo groups in orchestral, chamber, and solo music are investigated. The sources used include treatises and instrument manuals from the time, indications in the scores, records of basso continuo groups in concerts, and the opinions of present scholars on the subject. This information is then applied to practice through a series of instrumentation experiments on sonatas of Barrière, with a second cello, double bass, archlute, guitar, and harpsichord. Recorded samples of this process are supplied and discussed. The presentation will include an overview and discussion of the sources and evidence found, and live musical demonstrations will be presented by myself and colleagues.
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George Lloyd - Music for Brass, from symphony to test-piece (2017 ) Pieter Koster
Name: Pieter Koster Main Subject: Wind band Conducting Research Supervisor: Paul Scheepers Title of Research: George Lloyd – Music for brass, from symphony to test-piece Research Questions: 1. Did George Lloyd change his way of composing from Symphony no. 10 via Royal Parks to Diversions on a Bass Theme? a. In what way does George Lloyd treat the following compositional elements in each piece? i. Structure ii.Harmony iii.Thematic material iv. Musical Tension b. In what way does the treatment of these elements differ in each piece? 2. Did George Lloyd succeed in combining his own views with the demands of the test-piece commissions, to write an appropriate test-piece? Summary of Results: Cornish symphonic and opera composer George Lloyd has written several compositions for brass, starting with a symphony for brass ensemble (Symphony no. 10) and then several test-pieces for brass band. The commission of test-pieces for brass band contests appears to be guided only by implicit criteria for these sort of compositions. Lloyd’s first test-piece, Royal Parks, apparently did not meet the criteria and his second test-piece, Diversions on a Bass Theme, did. This thesis investigates if George Lloyd changed his way of composing to write an appropriate test-piece, by a detailed analysis of Symphony no. 10, Royal Parks and Diversions on a Bass Theme. Besides that the thesis will try to answer the question if Lloyd was able to combine his own musical views with the demands of the test-piece commissions. The main findings are that Lloyd remained within his own musical language when writing the test-pieces, however he made some decisive choices regarding structure, form and thematic material that influenced the compositions significantly. He did partially succeed in combining his own views with the demands of the test-piece commissions. Biography: Pieter Koster (1985) completed his Bachelor’s Degrees at the Royal Conservatory in The Hague as a student of Ad van Zon on the trumpet, and Alex Schillings for conducting. In September 2016 he successfully completed his Master-exam concert with the Bundes Polizeiochester München. Pieter has participated in multiple conducting courses with renowned (professional) orchestras and teachers. Today he is professional conductor of the fanfare orchestras ‘Ons Genoegen’ Hattem, ‘Wilhelmina’ Volendam and the Koninklijke Brassband Utrecht. He is also a brass teacher for numerous students. Since 2014 he is secretary and member of the board of the Dutch Association of Wind band Conductors (Bond van Orkestdirigenten en Instructeurs).
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Italian elements in French music for traverso by J.M.Laclair and M.Blavet (2014 ) Radka Kubinova
Name: Radka Kubínová Main Subject: Traverso Research Coach: Bart van Oort Title of Research: Italian elements in French music for traverso by J.M. Leclair and M.Blavet Research Question: How did the Italian style influence French music for the traverso between 1699-1750 ́? Research Process: My research question arises while studying music by Blavet and Leclair and their contemporaries. Their music includes many Italian elements and in my research I would like to reach a deeper understanding of the stylistic mixture. For that I need to uncover the social circumstances and back ground of the life of these two composers. I have studied French contemporary sources, mostly books written by the end of 17th century and beginning of 18th century describing musical life in France and its main musical personage. The big advantage of studying the contemporary sources in their original language is the possibility of getting the whole picture of the period. Summary of Results: The end of the 17th and the beginning of the 18th century in France was a “golden age” for traverso marked by an intense interaction between French and Italian style. This interaction is reflected in all aspects of music: composition, forms, instruments and interpretation. The Italian style introduced many new features which were hardly accepted by a conservative society represented by aristocracy and absolutistic monarch Louis XIV. Another section of the society, modern and open to anything, new was represented by very controversial and powerful person of Philippe II, Duke of Orléans who was the most important musical patron in France at that time. The best conclusion of the interaction between the two styles is “Les goûts réunïs” by François Couperin. In the preface of the book Couperin explains that the best solution is to take the best elements from each nation and put them together.
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Reading Garoto – a study over the legendary musician who changed Brazilian music. (2014 ) Henrique Gomide
This research was based in an investigation over the life and importance of the Brazilian composer "Garoto" (Anibal Augusto Sardinha), as well in my personal experience with his work. My readings over this topic involved all the literature existing about this composer (which was not vast), as well as books, articles, thesis and encyclopedias that contained information of the period he lived and the context in which he worked. Other important sources for my research were Garoto’s recordings, score and manuscripts as well as interviews made with musicians that played with him, important musicians that were influenced by him and researchers of his life and work. Garoto was one of the most versatiles musicians that Brazil ever had, possessing an outstanding technique in eight different string instruments. He recorded and composed in several diferent styles, and his compositions were one of the firsts to introduce influences from jazz and classical music into the popular music from Brazil. His extremely innovative style inspired a whole generation of composer and was a decisive influence to the “Bossa Nova”, musical movement that emerged in Rio de Janeiro in the late 1950’s, just a few years after Garoto’s death. Garoto’s repertoire is mostly played by guitar players in it’s original arrangements, as a consequence of a solo guitar Song-Book made by Paulo Bellinati that is sold trough all the world. In this research I present eight arrangements proposing a new approach of his pieces, to be performed on the piano with different instrumentations: solo, duo with bass, piano trio, piano trio with saxophone and piano trio with an ensemble of seven clarinets. Due to the 100th birthday of Garoto next year (2015) I also engaged some different projects to promote his music and his name: a CD recording, a documentary and a Festival with recognized musicians performing Garoto’s works.
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“Invocación y Danza – Homenaje a Manuel de Falla” - a new light on the piece brought by the manuscript. (2014 ) João Diogo Rosas Leitão
Name: João Diogo Rosas Leitão Main Subject: Guitar Research Coach: Enno Voorhorst Title of Research: “Invocación y Danza – Homenaje a Manuel de Falla” - a new light on the piece brought by the manuscript Research Question: How to deal with the different editions and solve the problems in the manuscript in order to get a playable and faithful version of “Invocación y Danza – Homenaje a Manuel de Falla” by Joaquin Rodrigo? Research Process: Two main topics were focused on in my research: An understanding of Joaquin Rodrigo's life, both personal and musical, focusing on his relationship with the guitar and the details behind the composing process of “Invocación y Danza” and the appearance of the manuscript. A comparison of the different editions of the score and the manuscript, noticing where each one of them differs from the other and how and trying out the different possibilities and solutions for each problematic spot. Summary of Results: Although I could not prove without a doubt that the manuscript available is the one that was sent for the Paris competition, I gathered strong evidence that can support this theory. With this manuscript we can see that some of the original ideas are actually not possible to play in the guitar, since Rodrigo did not play the guitar, and there are some doubts regarding the handwriting and the fact that it was a handmade copy made in a hurry. Apparently this manuscript disappeared after the first edition and all the following editions, that were trying to solve some of the doubts and difficult passages of the piece, were based on that same first edition. By comparing all the different details in each score and by creating and trying out new options and solutions I managed to make a new edition that is a compromise between the original idea and musical intention from the manuscript and a technically comfortable and playable score.
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Breathtaking: An alternative approach to breathing for trumpeters (2017 ) Danny Teong
Name: Danny Teong Main Subject: Trumpet, Early Music Performance Research supervisors: Wouter Verschuren, Susan Williams Title of Research: Breathtaking: An alternative approach to breathing for trumpeters Research Question: Breathing simultaneously through the nose and mouth: What are the benefits for trumpet playing? How can this technique be learned? Summary of Results: Breathing in trumpet pedagogy is a controversial area. Trumpet method books contain seemingly conflicting instructions, and breathing through the mouth and focusing on low abdomen breathing dominates conventional brass pedagogy. This research attempts to explore the teachings of Willem van der Vliet, a retired trumpet teacher, who presents an alternative approach of including the nose in the inhalation process. I have used interviews, surveys, and investigated scientific and esoteric sources to attempt to explain the breathing mechanism and to understand how and why Willem’s approach to breathing works, and how it can be learnt. Biography: Danny started playing the natural trumpet since 2011, and has freelanced with early music groups in the Netherlands and Germany. He is intrigued by the limitless rhetorical possibilities of early music and enjoys the portrayal of a singing trumpet via variations in articulation and sound colour. Danny is currently doing his master’s degree with Susan Williams in Koninklijk Conservatorium, with support from Adriana Jacoba Fonds.
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The Joy of Practice. A Case study of Keren by I.Xenakis - The pursuit of happiness in our practice room (2015 ) Georgios Kachrimanis
Name: Georgios Kachrimanis Main Subject: Classical Trombone Research Coach: Paul Scheepers Title of Research: The Joy of Practice: A case study of Keren by Iannis Xenakis Research Question: How can I bring the joy back into my daily practice? Summary of Results: Every musician perceives “hard work” differently in their career or education. For me it was something like weight lifting training with the motto “No Pain, No Gain”. This was my idea about practicing music for more than 15 years. Besides the hard work I was also dealing with anxiety and the outcome was that I was not progressing in my practice and performance. I noticed that I was not enjoying myself anymore as I did as a young boy, but that I was ‘working’ the trombone instead of ‘playing’. When I was accepted for the masters program of the conservatoire I knew I had to change something about my way of practicing. So I came up with my main question for my master research “How can I bring the joy back into my daily practice?” In my research paper I am exploring the flow theory of Csikszentmihalyi and the use of awareness from book of The Inner Game of Music. According to the Csikszentmihalyi flow can help musicians to experience more joy and achieve better work satisfaction. In order to explore this theory and the use of awareness I used a case study, Keren by Iannis Xenakis. Because joy and anxiety also got a lot to do with how you plan your practice and recovery I also made a practice plan. For this I used the information and planning techniques I got from Erja Joukamo-Ampuja, one of the speakers at the conference ‘From Potential to Performance’ in 2013. Putting all the information I gained during my research together, I came up with six conditions that I needed for my daily practice to be flow-like so I could gain some joy out of it: having a clear mind, a goal/outcome, good skill/challenge match, frequent feedback, physical/mental energy, relaxed concentration. During my presentation I will explain the concepts of flow, anxiety and joy in my daily practice and my case study. Biography: The Trombone came into Georgios’ life at the age of 15, although he had started playing music at the age of ten in his local fanfare band. Shortly thereafter he started playing in the Athens Student orchestra. The first time he played music professionally was at the age of 17, with the Radio Symphony Orchestra of Greece. In 2002 he won his current position as principal trombone of the Athens Philharmonia and in 2003 finished his studies with a 10 and first prize. During the next 10 years Georgios won other auditions and played with all the major and minor orchestras in Greece, appearing as a soloist on a number of occasions.
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"Art of drumming within jazz piano trio" (2015 ) Pauls Pokratnieks
Name: Pauls Pokratnieks Main subject: Jazz Drums Research Coach: Yvonne Smeets Title of Research: “Art of drumming within jazz piano trio” Research Question: How can I through historical and stylistic understanding of jazz drummers in significant piano trios during jazz history, improve my skill as an interactive trio member? What are the differences and similarities in drummers playing within significant jazz piano trios during the history of jazz? What are the characteristics of these great jazz piano trios? How can understanding of these differences, similarities and characteristics help me to react appropriately in different musical situations and combinations? Summary of Results: As I remember myself jazz piano trio was always my favorite band format in jazz music. I like the simplicity of it and in the same time the magic how great players could get it to sound like an orchestra. Especially in this band format we can see how great musicians are as listeners and supportive players, there is a much bigger role and responsibility for everyone to make the music interesting and happening than in bigger settings. Individual levels are equally important because every one of the musicians can choose directions where the music will go. Music is really about collective improvisation and truly listening to each other. This “platform” is great to explore dynamics, interaction and to become as a one – a great rhythm section. After listening to all these albums and analyzing what the drummer chooses to play I understood that it’s not just the drummer’s personality that counts, but big impact to drummers decisions are what the other two band members are doing and suggesting in music. One needs always listen to each other and go one way musically. One’s job within jazz trio setting is to make other musicians sound good and make their job easier and more comfortable. This setting is really fragile and it can work only if each member of trio is working towards the same goal. In different jazz styles the basic fundament of drummer is the same – to keep music going with nice feel and energy. During my presentation I will show and explain how I applied specific exercises/concepts in my playing and I will perform with my own jazz piano trio to show different ways, approaches to play within this setting in different styles, with knowledge gained from this research. Biography: Pauls Pokratnieks is jazz and other improvised music style drummer and composer. Up until the age of 18 he actively performed in various local and international orchestras as a classical percussion player and took first prizes in competitions. At the age of 16 Pauls began to play a drum set and first developed an interest in jazz music. At the age of 18 he enrolled in the Riga Dome Choir School (RDCS) in the Jazz department, and there started to deeply study drums, jazz theory, harmony, bass, composition and other subjects. After graduating RDCS in 2009 Pauls decided to continue his music studies in Royal Conservatory in The Hague, The Netherlands. Now he is doing Master studies in Royal Conservatory in The Hague and working as freelance musician and teacher.
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Referential Networks, Composing and the "Outside World" (2016 ) Patrick van Deurzen
Name: Patrick van Deurzen Main subject: Theory of Music Research coach: Marcel Cobussen Title of research: Referential Networks, Composing and the “Outside World” Research question: How does a new composition relate to the existing body of (art)works: the “outside world”? Summary of results: One aspect of composing is making countless connections, consciously and unconsciously, to other works. Of these countless connections, those created consciously form what I call a Referential Network. The works to which these connections are made, form the “Outside World”. In this research, I describe three of my compositions as three different Referential Networks. I analyse the compositions and show how the chosen references influence the compositional process and outcome. Performers (and listeners) also use references to access a composition. To understand this, I look at how we can understand a text and what the relation of author and observer is to a text. In relation to this, I have asked various performers for feedback to see to what extent my Referential Networks are noticed and if they play a role in interpreting them. To put my composing and this research in a historical context, I look at certain aspects of European composed art music after World War II to show two different views on tradition and the past. My concluding remarks include conclusions about the artistic result, i.e. the compositions, the performer's perspective, and some philosophical implications. Biography Patrick van Deurzen is a Dutch Composer and teaches Music Theory, Instrumentation and Arranging at the Royal Conservatoire of The Hague and the Rotterdam Conservatoire of Music.
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Examination of mid-nineteenth century double bass playing based on A. Müller and F.C. Franke’s discourse in the Neue Zeitschrift für Musik, 1848 – 1851 (2015 ) Shanti Nachtergaele
Name: Shanti Nachtergaele Main Subject: Violone Research Coach: Anna Scott Title of Research: Examination of Mid-Nineteenth Century Double Bass Playing Based on A. Müller and F.C. Franke’s Discourse in the Neue Zeitschrift für Musik, 1848 – 1851: With a discussion of the relevance of historical techniques to modern conventional and historically informed (‘HIP’) performance practices Research Questions: • Should historical double bass techniques be incorporated into historically informed performance (‘HIP’) practices today, and how can historical techniques be used to enhance modern performances? • Who was F.C. Franke, what insights can he and August Müller provide about the state of double bass playing c. 1850, and which of their ideas can be applied by double bassists today? • Can Müller’s and Franke’s contrasting ideas be combined, and what benefits does this integration offer to both ‘HIP’ and mainstream modern performers? Summary of Results: In the period 1849 - 1851, a collection of articles by A. Müller and F.C. Franke appeared in the Neue Zeitschrift für Musik, which discussed various aspects of double bass playing. The two double bassists agreed on some points, including that the double bass has a very important role in the orchestra, that there was a lack of good double bass players at the time, and the general characteristics of a good instrument; but they debated other subjects, such as playing stance, left hand technique, bow technique, the components of daily practice, and the common practice of simplifying double bass parts. Their discussion on these topics has implications for historically informed performance, especially in regards to the performance of orchestral works. During my presentation I will briefly discuss the historical background of my research, including biographical information, the state of double bass playing in the mid-nineteenth century. Using recorded audio and video examples and live demonstrations, I will then discuss the practical components of this artistic research: Franke’s and Müller’s opposing fingering methods, and Müller’s suggested modifications of the double bass parts of Beethoven's symphonies. Biography: Shanti Nachtergaele grew up in California (USA), and holds a Bachelor of Music degree in Double Bass Performance from Shenandoah Conservatory, where she studied with Donovan Stokes. She currently studies historic double bass and 8’ violone with Maggie Urquhart, and is interested in exploring historical perspectives of bass pedagogy and technique. Her research won the student division of the 2014 International Society of Bassists Research Competition, and she has been invited to present at the ISB’s 2015 convention.
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Music as an artificial language - an annotated collection of early music sources mentioning the relationship between instrumental music, singing, and speaking, questioning their relevance for today’s performers (2016 ) Isabella Mercuri
Name Isabella Mercuri Main Subject Recorder Research supervisors Inês de Avena Braga and Frédérique Thouvenot Title of Research Music as an artificial language - an annotated collection of early music sources mentioning the relationship between instrumental music, singing, and speaking, questioning their relevance for today’s performers Research Question What do treatises of the Renaissance and Baroque period mention about the relationship between instrumental music, singing, and speaking and how can I use those indications in my playing? Summary of Results The collection of sources from the beginning of the sixteenth century until the middle of the eighteenth century showed that the indications given by the authors are often very similar to each other, although being written in a completely different time and environment. The following three main ideas appear in several treatises and were therefore examined more in detail: - Imitation of the human voice or of a specific instrument - Following a speech and using the means of rhetoric - Underlying instrumental music with text The practical application of those three ideas led to an enrichment of my palette of sound colours, to an improvement in making clear phrasings and gave me some inspiration to find the appropriate affections to communicate to the listeners. This research paper and the included collection of sources might also be a starting point for further research exploring for instance more in detail one of the three main ideas mentioned above. Biography Isabella Mercuri was born in Switzerland, where she started studying the recorder with Kees Boeke and Matthias Weilenmann and completed her Bachelor of Arts in Music at the Zürcher Hochschule der Künste in 2013. She then moved to the Netherlands to continue her studies with Daniël Brüggen at the Royal Conservatoire in The Hague, where she also studies the baroque oboe with Frank de Bruine. Isabella Mercuri is active as a recorder teacher for children and adults and regularly performs in different chamber music settings in the Netherlands, Belgium, Switzerland, Serbia and Spain.
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The place of modern technique in historical performance practice. (2014 ) Mikaela Oberg
Name: Mikaela Oberg Main Subject: Historical Flutes Research Coaches: Wouter Verschuren Title of Research: The Place of Modern Methods used to acquire Technique on Period Instruments, within Historically Informed Performance Practice. Research Question: How has the way we acquire technique on the flute developed since 1700 and to what extent can the use of instructional methods intended for Boehm system flutes within historically informed performance practice be deemed valid? Research Process: The information for my research has come from a collection of over fifty treatises, methods and technical workbooks written between 1700 and 2013. My historical overview was based on a more in-depth analysis of just over thirty of these and I also interviewed twenty-seven historical flute players, of various ages and levels to acquire an understanding of the current approach towards technical development. Summary of Results: By examining a large variety of flute instructional methods written across three hundred years I have discovered that there is a continuous relationship in ideologies associated with the development of sound, articulation and finger technique on the flute. This continuity of ideas, combined with the results of my interviews with current student and professional historical flute players has brought me to the conclusion that it is quite valid for historical flute players to include methods intended for Boehm system flutes as part of their practice material. I have found evidence supporting the fact that eighteenth century flute players included technical exercises as part of a daily practice routine, apart from their repertoire practice. I have also found that the most popular and enduring exercises in use today, many of which us flute players know from our modern flute studies, have their foundations in material found in eighteenth and early nineteenth century method books. In my power point presentation I will offer various examples from my research material highlighting the development of technical material from 1700 to the present. This will display the links that exist between the old and the new as well as offer several often over-looked suggestions for flute players looking to expand their practice resources.
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The influence of some characteristics of Romanian folk music on the Romanian Rhapsody no. 1 opus 11 by George Enescu – An arrangement for 2 pianos (2014 ) Andrea Vasi
Name: Andrea Vasi Main Subject: Piano Research Coach: Theo Verbey Title of Research: The influence of some characteristics of Romanian folk music on the Romanian Rhapsody no. 1 opus 11 by George Enescu – An arrangement for 2 pianos Research Question: What is the nicest way to make an arrangement for 2 pianos of the first Romanian Rhapsody opus 11 no. 1 by George Enescu, and how has this piece been influenced by Romanian folk music? Research Process: My (Romanian) father, who is also a professional musician, helped me in the sense that he told me his views on what Romanian folk music was, which I took as a starting point. Throughout my childhood, I listened to Romanian folk music a lot (every week, we went to a café in The Hague where Romanians would play their music), so I have quite much personal experience with it as well (I sometimes played along, and had my own ‘gypsy’ ensemble). Only one valuable book on Enescu has been published in the west, in 1990, namely ‘George Enescu: His Life and Music’ by N. Malcolm. A lot of biographical and musicological information on Enescu I could find in here, but I really needed my father to translate the Romanian sources I had collected. I had the chance to quote Enescu himself, because he did some extensive interviews with B. Gavoty. As for the arrangement, I am a pianist myself, and played and studied a lot two piano-pieces in the past. With the help of my coach, composer Theo Verbey, I made my own arrangement for two pianos of Enescu’s Romanian Rhapsody no. 1 opus 11. Summary of Results: First of all, one can find the arrangement I made of the Romanian Rhapsody no. 1 opus 11 by George Enescu in the Appendix. I make clear how I made this arrangement for two pianos, and why I made it like this. The main goals were to keep the material as much intact as possible, but while doing this, I wanted to make sure both piano parts were very ‘playable’, very ‘pianistic’. Secondly, I wanted to know how this piece has been influenced by Romanian folk music. In order to be able to do this, I had to determine what ‘Romanian folk music’ actually is. So I tried to narrow it down to the most distinct and prominent characteristics. I did this in chapter three, in which I started by quoting Enescu himself on the subject. According to him, the music of his country is full of ‘dor’ (‘Sehnsucht’), and there is ‘sadness even in the midst of happiness’. Shifting between major and minor also occurs frequently, I noticed. When I started analyzing songs I knew from my childhood, and started looking for characteristics on the internet, in chapter four, I deminstrated that there are some elements which appear in most of Romania’s folk music, concerning instruments, scales and modes, meter and rhythm, ornamentation, ‘doina’ and gypsies.
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A MUSICIANS’ VIEW ON COOPERATING WITH COMPOSERS The influence of composers on the performance practice (2014 ) Martin van Hees
Name: Martin van Hees Main Subject: Guitar Research Coach: Patrick van Deurzen Title of Research: A Musicians’ view on cooperating with composers Research Question: What is the influence of a composer on the performance practice of a performer when playing the composers’ composition? Research Process: An introduction and short analysis of five compositions will be presented in the research process. A meeting with the composer will take place and issues regarding musical ideas and technical difficulties will be discussed. Before meeting the composer a thorough analysis regarding the way of performing the composition will be made. All the important decisions, musically and technically will be mentioned. A sound recording of the composition will be made in this stage. During the meeting with the composer the composition will be played, recorded and reviewed. There will be an interview held with questions regarding the composition and with questions regarding the opinion of the composer concerning the performance practice. After meeting the composer, an analysis of the interview will be made. A reconsideration of the interpretation of the composition will be made. The composition will be recorded again. A comprehensive analysis of the cooperation will be made and a conclusion will be drawn. Summary of Results: Throughout the research I discovered that it is helpful to play the composers composition in advance to them, before actually performing it. When a performer has sincere affection with a certain composition it is worth to share this affection with its creator. A performer has to be aware that a composition is a changeable piece of art, so a composer can always change the performer his opinion on the piece, even if the performer disagrees, both parties should come to a common solution. As regarding the changes that are made before and after the meeting with the composer, they are audible on the sound recordings at https://soundcloud.com/martinvanhees
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Keyboard transcriptions of orchestral works by M. Marais and J. Ph. Rameau (2014 ) João Guimarães Rival
Name: João Guimarães Rival Main Subject: Harpsichord Research Coaches: Inês de Avena Braga and Patrick Ayrton Title of Research: Keyboard transcriptions of orchestral works by M. Marais and J. Ph. Rameau Research Questions: How did French Baroque composers adapt orchestral works for the harpsichord? What needs to be observed when making new transcriptions based on historical examples? Research Process: Often, as a harpsichordist, one needs to transcribe or adapt an orchestral piece for keyboard, either when accompanying or even if only to understand it more deeply for continuo playing. The motivations of playing orchestral excerpts that were not yet transcribed, or which are currently known nowadays is perhaps the main point of my research. It relies on the analysis of the examples of transcriptions realized by Jean-Henri D’Anglebert (1629- 1691) from several works by Jean-Baptiste Lully (1632-1687), the 1693 Anonymous transcriptions from Alcide by Marin Marais (1656-1728), and Jean-Philippe Rameau’s (1683-1764) Les Indes Galantes (1735). In order to apply the results of these analyses, I transcribed a few instrumental excerpts from the operas Sémélé (1709) and Les Boréades (1764) by Marais and Rameau respectively, and will present a report on how the transcriptional process was made. Summary of Results: I believe that the results of my research have opened up new perspectives in this field, and provided new historically informed transcriptions for solo performance. With the examples analyzed, the present study detailed important aspects of the transcriptional process and unraveled many of its issues, concerning compositional techniques involved on translating an orchestral piece to harpsichord in two different periods of French music. As mentioned above, it is extremely important for a harpsichordist to identify which tools were used to idiomatically translate an orchestral writing to a keyboard one, if only for a better understanding compositional practices, the solo repertoire and for the development of a more historically informed accompaniment. My research aimed to identify more clearly what could be considered a “French harpsichord language”, considering its sound qualities and different possibilities of interpretation, and how it was used in two major periods of French music, symbolized in this context by Marais and Rameau, and their impact on the musical life of nearly a century. The presentation will be focused on the process of transcription with live music examples enhanced by a PowerPoint presentation.
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Fast Notes! (2017 ) Wouter Verschuren
The purpose of this research is to investigate the different ways of articulating fast passagework on the dulcian in repertoire spanning the period ca.1550 until ca.1700. Prior to 1787, when Etienne Ozi published his first edition of the Nouvelle Methode de Basson, there are no sources known that specifically discuss articulation or (double) tonguing on bass double reed instruments. When we perform music from this era, we are in the dark as how to articulate highly virtuosic passages. What is preferable: Two-by-two slurring? Slurs over more notes, or maybe the use of some kind of double tongue-stroke? During this research I will focus on primary sources that deal with articulation on various non-reed wind instruments of the period in question, such as the recorder, the cornetto and the trumpet. By studying the indications and recommendations given by masters of the past we can deduce their musical intensions. When we accept these authors as our guides, they may be able to help us imagining what articulation on a double-reed instrument could sound like. The moment we envision this concept, we can start to translate their instructions into articulation on reed instruments. The output is threefold: 1. A paper describing the different ways on how to articulate fast passagework on the dulcian and on the bassoon in a way that matches the souplesse and speed of non-reed instruments. 2. Two compositions written for the dulcian, with added articulation-markings by the author. 3. Video examples clarifying some musical examples. With this project I hope to shed light on practical issues of the performance of highly virtuosic repertoire for dulcian and bassoon from the sixteenth and seventeenth century.
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Barry Harris: Exploring the Diminished (2014 ) Vera Marijt
Name: Vera Marijt Main Subject: Jazz Piano Research Coach: Jarmo Hoogendijk Title of Research: Barry Harris: Exploring the Diminished Research Question: How can the transcriptions I made of Barry Harris' workshops and recordings be incorporated in my playing, in order to develop myself in a bebop style? Research Process: I transcribed two DVD boxes containing 8 discs of over 8 hours of workshops by pianist Barry Harris that were recorded and published by Howard Rees. Furthermore, I transcribed about 54 video's of Barry Harris that were published on the website, www.franselsen.com, and several solo's of him. This resulted in about 35 pages of transcribed material, that I sorted and practiced during my Master studies. Summary of Results: Barry Harris talks in his workshops a lot about one important chord; the diminished. He explained how chords are related to the diminished and how we can use the diminished to connect chords and create 'movement'. Two important scales are the major and minor 6 diminished scales. Exercises I got out of the transcriptions and experimenting with this, opened a new world of sounds, voicings, harmonic knowledge and ideas for improvisational lines for me. I apply the material to existing pieces and wrote a composition in which these techniques are used. In the presentation I will explain about the major and minor 6th diminished scales and how they can be applied to tunes.
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Use your personal learning style for playing by heart ( ) Emilie Bastens
Name: Emilie Bastens Main Subject: Harp Research Coaches: Enno Voorhorst and Anton Sie Title of Research: Use your personal learning style for playing by heart Research Question: How can you find the most efficient way, which fits the best with you, for playing by heart?” Research Process: Much of my research has come from interaction with colleagues and my personal experience with playing by heart on a harp. I started with the head. I read more about the brain and the memory. After that, I took a deeper look at the instrument. I started to analyze the problems, which comes with playing by heart on a harp. Because studying by heart is very close to learning, I searched for more information about this topic. This is how I read more about differences in learning styles. I asked myself how my personal learning style could help me with playing by heart on the harp. With the research tool Belbin, Mr. J. Boogaars helped me to discover my personal learning style. I analyzed how I could use my positive and negative sides the best for playing by heart. Because I read more about learning styles, I started reading more books about management. Because of this I used helpful thoughts for playing by heart on a harp. Based on my experiences I made a plan with 7 steps, which can be used by other harpists for playing by heart. Summary of Results: This research is about the effect of knowing your personal learning style, on playing by heart on a harp. The research tool Belbin, which is based on the archetypes described by Carl Gustav Jung, shows differences in learning styles. There is a look at the difficulties of studying and playing by heart on a harp. On this basis, I searched for the influence of knowing your personal learning style on this studying. Helpful thoughts can help to reach your goal faster and easier. On this bases there is made a plan with 7 steps, which can be used for more efficient studying. Those 7 steps are useful for different learning styles and provide a guide for the possible difficulties that may be experienced with playing by heart on a harp. The presentation will include a deeper look at the difficulties of the instrument, differences in learning styles and a personal analyze of how to use your personal learning style in the best way for playing by heart.
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Chordal Continuo Realization on the Violoncello: A look at the practice of chordal accompaniment by cellists over the course of two centuries, with a focus on recitative accompaniment practices between 1774 and 1832 (2014 ) Eva Lymenstull
Name: Eva Lymenstull Main Subject: Baroque Cello Research Coach: Johannes Boer Title of Research: Chordal Continuo Realization on the Violoncello: A look at the practice of chordal accompaniment by cellists over the course of two centuries, with a focus on recitative accompaniment practices between 1774 and 1832 Research Question: What was the practice of chordal continuo realization by cellists in the eighteenth century? What historical precedence exists, in what musical contexts would the practice be used, and how does this realization sound when used in performance? Summary of Results: The cello was used as a continuo instrument from the earliest days of basso continuo through the early nineteenth century. In addition to the cello being used as a single-voice continuo instrument, evidence exists that some cellists realized their continuo lines, creating multi-voice chordal accompaniments. Accounts of performances in which cellists played chordal continuo realizations exist, though very sporadically, ranging from 1657 to 1834. Despite arguments from a number of scholars and performers that the use of chordal continuo realizations by cellists was widespread during the eighteenth century, there is insufficient evidence, much of which is highly circumstantial, that the practice was common before 1774. Several treatises were published between 1774 and 1834, however, that give clear and detailed instructions, including examples of execution, for the use of chordal continuo realizations on the cello in secco recitatives in opera. The use of this practice at that time sheds an interesting light on the role of the cello, the development of cello technique, and about the virtuosity required for this type of accompaniment. The presentation will include a discussion of the various sides of the debate over chordal continuo practices in the Baroque, live demonstrations by myself and colleagues of the chordal recitative techniques outlined in the treatises I have examined, and a power point presentation.
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Cranio Sacral Therapy and Singing (2014 ) Anna Walker
Name: Anna Walker Main Subject: Classical Singing Research Coaches: Yvonne Smeets and Ami Shamir Title of Research: Craniosacral Therapy and Singing Research Question: How can craniosacral therapy be relevant in helping singers free up their voices and overcome physical obstructions to make them better performers? Research Process: My goal was to understand more about why craniosacral therapy (CST) has helped my singing so much and to find out whether it could also help other singers become freer artists on stage. Studying literature by osteopaths and CST therapists such as John Upledger, Michael Shea, David McFarland and Michael Kern has given me insight about the nature of CST, its background in osteopathy and some basic knowledge of anatomy. In addition to the theoretical background I used my own journey with CST as an example and looked closely at how CST has helped me. I interviewed my singing teachers Gerda van Zelm and Rita Dams and my osteopath Ami Shamir about my technical and artistic progress and wrote about my own perception of the development. To understand more about how CST and singing could work together I interviewed Hamburg-based singer, singing teacher and CST therapist Stefanie Hoffmann. Summary of Results: CST, which has its roots in osteopathy, uses gentle manual techniques to detect and release restrictions that occur in the body as a reaction to trauma (injury, surgery, illness). The rhythm of the cerebrospinal fluid that flows around the brain and the spinal cord, called craniosacral wave, is a stable motion that is not influenced by heart rate or breathing. It is palpable because its waves are transmitted through membranes enveloping all structures of the body (fascia) and can therefore be used to detect areas of restricted movement. Some areas of the body are frequently places of restricted craniosacral movement, e.g. all major transverse/horizontal structures such as diaphragm, pelvic floor, cranial base and thoracic inlet. These areas happen to be crucial for singing as well. For example a free diaphragm is very important for a singer’s breath support or a free jaw and neck (connected to cranial base and thoracic inlet) are crucial for flexible articulation. CST’s techniques for release of the transverse structures can therefore be highly beneficial for a singer. The body’s numerous functional connections can produce symptoms as a sort of chain reaction in various parts of the body after trauma. CST can help find the cause of the problem and help release the tension by facilitating the body’s own motion. My development as a singer has been greatly supported by CST, because CST was the therapy form which addressed my initial problem (difficult birth, vacuum delivery: pressure on head, neck and spine) at its core, at the level of the nervous system. My body reacted to this treatment with (lasting) structural changes, which have made breathing, articulating and resonating easier for me. CST is certainly a good tool for a singer to become more aware of his/her body. It can also help a singer whose development is impaired by physical obstacles that pure functional voice training cannot solve.
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A practical exploration of the historical fingerings of Baroque Recorders in England, France and Germany (2016 ) Koske Nozaki
Name: Koske Nozaki Main Subject: Recorder Research Supervisors: Inês de Avena Braga and Peter Van Heyghen Title of Research: A practical exploration of the historical fingerings of Baroque Recorders in England, France and Germany Research Question: What is “historical fingering” for Baroque recorders, and how does it work and affect our modern recorder performance practice. Summary of Results: The recorder was an important instrument in the Early Music revival, partly due to its large repertoire of Baroque music. However, most recorder players today do not use the instruments that were most commonly used in the Baroque period, i.e. those with historical fingering systems. Instead, we normally use instruments with “modern fingering,” a slight modification that simplifies fingerings and homogenizes notes. With our modern instruments and their different fingering systems, several notes and trills do not work with the existing fingering charts for Baroque recorders. The Investigation of this research, on 7 actual original 18th century recorders from England, Germany, and France, and 40 fingering charts from historical methods shows us; it is a very logical system. The people at the time were playing the recorders in a different way, with differently tuned instruments. Fingerings on the recorder have always been found by trial and error, by players, with their own comfort and ease in mind. Though it is clearly not possible to know how the people in the Baroque period were choosing their fingerings; the best approximation is to have the same instrument tuned in the same system from the time. Historical tutors allow us to realize how their system of thought was different, which helps us to get closer to them. A bit of effort to accept the valuable tips from centuries past, with a taste for authenticity on the Baroque-fingered recorder, is a necessity. Biography: Koske Nozaki (Tokyo, 1988) began playing recorder at the age of 9. He loved the friendliness of such a simple flute with so many possibilities, and had a lot of curiosity for repertoire and the instrument itself. His school life at a beautiful seaside was focused on the recorder ensemble with his friends, which taught him a lot of basic musical knowledge. In his high school life, on a mountain this time, he learned not only recorder, but cello in the school orchestra as well. He studied recorder and Early Music performance at The National Tokyo University of Fine Arts and Music, where he obtained his Bachelor degree. After three years of working as a recorder player and teacher in Japan, he moved to The Netherlands in 2014. He is currently completing his Master’s degree at the Royal Conservatoire in The Hague, where he studies recorder and baroque flute.
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Luigi Boccherini: patronage and musical life in Madrid between 1768 and 1805 (2014 ) Carlos Leal Cardín
Name: Carlos Leal Cardín Main Subject: Violoncello Research Coach: Bart van Oort Title of Research: Luigi Boccherini. Patronage and musical life in Madrid between 1768 and 1805. Research Question: How was Boccherini’s work determined by its social function and his musical environment? Was the musical scene in Madrid comparable to the one in other European capitals? Research Process: I have tried to reconstruct the musical landscape in which Boccherini lived and worked for almost 40 years in Spain by analyzing several aspects of the musical life: concert life, musical institutions, patronage and music printing and trade. It is therefore a historical research based on available bibliography as well as in sources of the period. Summary of Results: Luigi Boccherini lived in Madrid or near for almost 40 years. Throughout of the 18th century there were many attempts in Spain to modernize the society, the economy and of course the culture, trying to get a closer position to the leading nations of that time. In music this resulted in the development of public concerts and opera performances, very much in the line of the spirit of the Enlightenment. But at the same time there was a lack of dissemination of printed music due to the absence of a strong musical press. That’s why Boccherini published his works outside Spain where the middleclass amateur players were much more abundant. During 10 of his years in Spain Boccherini enjoyed the patronage of the infante don Luis under such favorable terms that can be compared to the situation of Haydn with the Prince Eszterhazy. We could say that even being so far from the big musical centers -Viena, Paris and London- the circumstances in which he developed his career were not so different from other composers of the time.
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On Electronic Sound Sculptures: Circuits and Aesthetics (2017 ) Eirik Brandal
This paper is first and foremost concerned with my methods for designing, constructing and composing with freeform electronic sound sculptures. It covers the topics of circuit modularity, network communication, interaction and sonification as a means to create nonlinear music, as well as architectural concepts that are either being utilized or that have been functioning as sources of inspiration toward the design of the sound sculptures. The reader will be guided largely through the perspective of my own work, but general ideas and concepts from similar artists will be discussed where applicable.
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Searching for Sattler (2017 ) Timothy Dowling (KC)
Abstract Name: Timothy Dowling Main Subject: Trombone Research Supervisor: Charles Toet Title of research: “Searching for Sattler; Reproducing a Romantic Trombone”. The history and development of the trombone, particularly in Leipzig, between Beethoven’s Fifth and Schumann’s Rhenish Symphonies, 1808-1851 Research Question: Does the prevailing tendency within the so-called “Historically Informed” performance tradition of performing early nineteenth century German composers’ trombone parts on narrow bore classical( or even baroque) reproduction instruments or modern German trombones truly reflect the performance practice of the trombonists performing in orchestras within the time period of this study? What were the instruments used by the original performers? Who were the builders of these instruments and what were their dimensions? Is it now possible to build a truly idiomatic mid nineteenth century German style trombone based upon traditional techniques that truly reflects the sound world of the early nineteenth century orchestra? Summary of results: After extensively examining in detail the use of trombones in orchestras between 1808 and 1851 in an historical context, I have concluded that the current common practice of performing the trombone parts of the music of mid century German composers such as Mendelssohn and Schumann on the standard reproduction classical trombones of three different sizes and pitches : alto, tenor, and bass, is unlikely to be an accurate representation of the instruments used, particularly in Leipzig, during the time period of Mendelssohn’s directorship of the Gewandhaus Orchestra, where most of this repertoire was first performed. After meeting instrument builders, instrument collectors, and viewing and measuring many instruments in museums and private collections, I have concluded that it is possible and desirable to design and build a set of Romantic reproduction trombones based on models of the Leipzig master instrument builder Christian Friedrich Sattler and his successor Johann Christoph Penzel, that could accurately represent the trombone sound for which Mendelssohn and Schumann wrote. In this study I have made a detailed proposal (within the scope of my expertise) as to how these instruments should be built and it is my fervent hope that in so doing I can add to the understanding and advancement of nineteenth century trombone performance practice among trombonists for both “authentic” performance practitioners and modern symphonic trombonists. Biography: Melbourne-born trombonist Timothy Dowling began his professional career in Australia in 1979, performing in four different Australian orchestras before being appointed to his current position of solo trombonist of the Residentie Orchestra in The Hague in 1988. He is also a noted performer on historical instruments, and is a founder member of baroque ensemble In Stil Moderno and is currently principal trombonist with Anima Eterna Bruges. He has been teaching modern trombone at the Royal Conservatoire since 2006.
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Nights in the Spanish Gardens. Meaning and inspiration (2018 ) Samuel Tirado Villaescusa
Name: Samuel Tirado Villaescusa Main Subject: Classical Piano Research Supervisor: Bart van Oort Title of Research: Nights in the Spanish Gardens: Meaning and inspiration Research Question: Which are the most important sources of inspiration in the piece Nights in the Spanish Gardens and how all of them affect the performance of the soloist and the orchestra? Summary of Results: Manuel de Falla's piece Nights in the Spanish Gardens has become popular during the last twenty years. Several of the greatest performers have recorded it achieving impressive results. However, the piece presents key aspects from the Spanish folklore and French impressionism that, usually, are not taken into account. Searching information for my research, I discovered that the most important sources of inspiration come from »cante jondo« (a Spanish primitive chant), the Spanish guitar and the music of Claude Debussy. Thus, I found several examples that prove the connection and help the performer to make the interpretation as coherent as possible. The research process changed my vision about topics such as the role of the soloist, the interpretation of ornaments, melodic lines and rubato as well as the imitation of the guitar in De Falla's music. Furthermore, this information could also help not only pianist performing Nights in the Spanish Gardens, but also any musician playing Manuel de Falla's music. Biography: Samuel Tirado begins his studies in Salamanca, where he completed a bachelor degree with Patrin Garcia Barredo. He has participated in masterclasses with teachers like Claudio Martinez Mehner, Ferenc Rados, Edith Fischer, Kennedy Moretti and Galina Eguiazarova among others. He has performed as a soloist and chamber music member and in places such as the national auditorium in Madrid, auditorium of Cuenca and theaters in Salamanca, Ciudad Real and Ávila. He has also played in countries such as Holland, France and Austria.
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MONTSALVATGE AND HIS ATTEMPT TO ESCAPE FROM THE SPANISH CLICHÉ THROUGH THE ANTILLEANISM IN HIS CINCO CANCIONES NEGRAS (2018 ) Ana Sanchez Donate
The Spanish cliché is an invention of the eighteenth and the nineteenth centuries. This exotic and romantic image of musical "Spanishness" had, and still has, an enormous influence on Spanish musicians and in the general approach to the interpretation of Spanish Music. Through history the political powers have tried to make used of the stereotypes at their own convenience. Franco’s regime urged composers to adhere to a formalistic aesthetic, full of Spanish nationalistic clichés, in a clear attempt to unify and control a country rich in different cultures and folklore. Within this context, the question of musical nationalism inevitably arises as well as the way in which it was faced, surrounded, transformed and solved by the composers of the time. Montsalvatge soon manifested a profound independence of criteria that took him away from falling into the Spanish cliché. He was the cultivator of a peculiar nationalism, at the same time far from Spanishism and Catalanism. Montsalvatge found in Antilleanism a sort of “secular post-nationalism", a personality of his own. The most famous example of this Antilleanism are his “Cinco Canciones Negras”
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Nights in the Spanish Gardens. Meaning and inspiration ( ) Samuel Tirado Villaescusa
Name: Samuel Tirado Villaescusa Main Subject: Classical Piano Research Supervisor: Bart van Oort Title of Research: Nights in the Spanish Gardens: Meaning and inspiration Research Question: Which are the most important sources of inspiration in the piece Nights in the Spanish Gardens and how all of them affect the performance of the soloist and the orchestra? Summary of Results: Manuel de Falla's piece Nights in the Spanish Gardens has become popular during the last twenty years. Several of the greatest performers have recorded it achieving impressive results. However, the piece presents key aspects from the Spanish folklore and French impressionism that, usually, are not taken into account. Searching information for my research, I discovered that the most important sources of inspiration come from »cante jondo« (a Spanish primitive chant), the Spanish guitar and the music of Claude Debussy. Thus, I found several examples that prove the connection and help the performer to make the interpretation as coherent as possible. The research process changed my vision about topics such as the role of the soloist, the interpretation of ornaments, melodic lines and rubato as well as the imitation of the guitar in De Falla's music. Furthermore, this information could also help not only pianist performing Nights in the Spanish Gardens, but also any musician playing Manuel de Falla's music. Biography: Samuel Tirado begins his studies in Salamanca, where he completed a bachelor degree with Patrin Garcia Barredo. He has participated in masterclasses with teachers like Claudio Martinez Mehner, Ferenc Rados, Edith Fischer, Kennedy Moretti and Galina Eguiazarova among others. He has performed as a soloist and chamber music member and in places such as the national auditorium in Madrid, auditorium of Cuenca and theaters in Salamanca, Ciudad Real and Ávila. He has also played in countries such as Holland, France and Austria.
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