Name: Ryuko Reid
Main Subject: Baroque Violin Research Supervisor: Johannes Boer
Title of Research:
Apollo’s Banquet for Children: Teaching baroque music to the young violinist
How can the baroque “rules” being used today in the field of historically informed performance practice be taught at a young age?
Summary of Results:
The purpose of this study is to investigate what aspects of the musical language of the baroque era can be experienced from twenty songs found in John Playford’s Apollo’s Banquet. This is a collection of country-dances, broad street ballads, theatre tunes, tunes from Morris dancing, Scottish tunes and French dances, that were published for the amateur violinist in 1670. In this study, these songs were taught to students between the ages of 5 and 10 with activities designed to create awareness of gestures, bar hierarchy, light cadences and other important baroque features, in a fun and approachable way.
Videos and observations of the lessons show that the repertoire was well received and the paper shows that the use of the songs provided an effective initial stage in experiencing baroque music However the students would need to be exposed to many more examples of these baroque elements before they become consciously learned. This paper also concludes that other elements of baroque music not included in this study, such as rhetorical devices and improvisation could be investigated, and exploring folk music repertoire of the seventeenth century would provide our students with a richer experience of the baroque style.
Ryuko Reid is a baroque violinist specialising in historically informed performance practice and is the artist director and leader of Amsterdam Corelli Collective. Ryuko works as a violin teacher in Muziekschool Amstelveen and studied the Kodály method at Koninklijk Conservatorium.
She came to study baroque violin with Sophie Gent at Conservatorium van Amsterdam and is currently finishing her masters at Koninklijk Conservatorium, with Kati Debretzeni and Walter Reiter. Before moving to Amsterdam, she studied modern violin with Jan Repko, taught at Chetham’s School of Music and studied Dalcroze method in Manchester, UK.
Name: Isa Goldschmeding
Main subject: Violin
Research supervisor: Dr. Anna Scott
Title: Dancing About Music
Research Question: How does consciously moving while playing help to interpret and communicate a piece of music?
Summary of Results:
Using movement is the most natural and direct way with which people express themselves. Elaborate research has been done on the connection between movement (gesture) and intention (meaning) in spoken language. The same principles and findings in these studies can be applied to movement and its connection to music. The method described in my case study, in which I studied Lera Auerbach’s Lonely Suite for violin solo while focusing on my body’s impulses, makes use of this instinctual way of showing what we feel, and therefore leads to a sincere and convincing interpretation. In so doing, this process can be very clarifying for a performer.
Based on my research into the available background literature I can conclude that there is much to be gained by using conscious movement while learning and performing a piece of music. Indeed, various authors repeatedly emphasize the importance of this subject for musicians, and their hope that it will be further researched and developed within the context of musical performance. By way of my case study, I have indeed found that using movement provides a new approach to learning a piece of music and to developing a personal, sincere, and honest interpretation. Emerging from the unconscious, I strongly believe that an interpretation that has been reached through movement will translate strongest to a given audience.
The background sources surveyed have also proven the value of a movement-based approach for audiences. In addition to the obvious benefits for the performer as related to musical meaning and expression, benefits that are then shared by the audience, there is also the visual aspect of this approach to performing music with conscious movements: an aspect that is of great value when connecting, sharing, and communicating with audiences.
Isa Goldschmeding studied with Axel Strauss at the San Francisco Conservatory of Music and with Theodora Geraets and Ilona Sie Dhian Ho at the Royal Conservatoire in The Hague. She participated in masterclasses with Theo Olof, Philippe Graffin, Stephan Picard, Isabelle van Keulen and the Osiris Trio. Isa enjoys playing chamber music, and has a special interest in contemporary music. In 2014 she was one of the instrumental soloists in Vivier’s opera Kopernikus with the Dutch National Opera. She played with Asko|Schönberg, Ensemble Klang, Rosa Ensemble, Residentie Orkest and Nieuwe Philharmonie Utrecht and is a member of the young, The Hague based ensemble Kluster5.
The purpose of this research is to define methods of applying extra-musical and data-based systems in multimedia music works. The first part of the paper concentrates on the outline of the motivation and reasoning for using extra-musical systems from a composer's or sound artist's perspective and gives a historical precedent context. Parallels are drawn together with contemporary art and art critique examples. The second part of the research outlines the possible modes of the data-based systems application by analysing multiple multimedia works by composers or sound artists written in the last two decades including a piece by the author of the paper. The types of multimedia and its connection to sound are discussed, the conceptual deconstruction and its semiotic implications of the data used are analysed. The given conceptual and semantic context is applied for analysing the musical parameters and data's usage in sound control. Each of the pieces discussed outlines a particular mode of the conceptuality towards the extra-musical system usage and functions as a primal device for further conclusions drawn. The final part of the research consists of the general overview of the conclusions drawn and attempts to establish a general outline of the motivation and the resulting outcome behind the usage of the extra-musical systems in multimedia works.
Name: Anne-Linde Visser
Main Subject: Baroque Cello
Research Supervisor: Johannes Boer
Title of Research: Seventeenth century (Italian) cello playing, focusing mainly on bow technique
How can we regain seventeenth century bow-technique for cello repertoire?
Summary of Results:
My aim for this research was to find out more about 17th century cello playing, with the focus on bow technique. The first cello treatise was not written until 1741 (Corette) and therefore most cellists will play this repertoire with a late 18th century (bow) technique. Repertoire which is written especially for the violoncello starts in the late 17th century, but a lot of this repertoire was still composed in the old style.
In short, my research contains the following elements: the bow, the bow-hold, bow-technique and other sources on articulation. The sources used include mainly treatises and iconography (taking into account that not all iconography is appropriate).
Iconography shows us that there are a lot of possibilities to play the cello. In terms of bow hold, underhand bow hold is seen the most, but also overhand bow hold can be seen towards the end of the 17th century. The treatises by Sylvestre Ganassi, Riccardo Rognioni and Francesco Frognoni, were my main sources for bow-technique. Ganassi (16th century) already gives some very important ‘rules’ on string-playing that are still applicable today. Written in even greater detail concerning articulation, are the treatises for wind instruments.
In my opinion, those treatises are not only valuable for 17th century repertoire, but could be also a source of inspiration for any other repertoire.
Anne-Linde Visser (The Netherlands, 1992) studies baroque cello with Lucia Swarts. Last year she studied with Jonathan Manson at the Royal Academy of Music in London (Erasmus Exchange). Anne-Linde is ‘Young Bach Fellow’ of the Nederlandse Bachvereniging and member of the Theresia Youth Baroque Orchestra (Italy). Besides that, she regularly performs with the Laurenscantorij, Ars Musica and the Dutch Baroque Orchestra. With the Castello Consort she was recently accepted to take part in the Eeemerging-programme. She especially enjoys playing basso continuo, which has been described as ‘excellent’ (Early Music Reviews) and ‘impressive: unobtrusive yet decisive’ (Opera Today).
Name: Johan Smeulders
Main Subject: Wind Orchestra Conducting (HaFaBra)
Research Supervisor: Suzan Overmeer
Title of Research: The success of a symphonic transcription
What makes a symphonic transcription (for Concert band, Fanfare and Brass band) of one of the Great Masters from the 19th century successful?
Summary of Results:
The success of a chosen key in a symphonic transcription depends on several thoughts from arrangers and composers. It is possible to choose any kind of key for a symphonic transcription but the choice always has consequences. For example, the chosen key has consequences for the amount of sharps and flats in the individual parts for the different instruments. Another very important consequence, while a different key is chosen, is the choice for the solo parts in a transcription. Every instrument has its limitations within a chosen key because of the “limited” register for a particular solo instrument. The hard part in my research is the question: “What is success”? And how is it possible to define “success”? When a different key, another key than what is written in the original composition is chosen, some people will say the “colour” of the composition has also changed. Some people say they can feel and hear it but as we all know a lot of thoughts in music are subjective. So how can we define its success when a lot of things are subjective? What is good, better or wrong?
Luckily, I have found some measurable facts to define the success of a symphonic transcription.
My main conclusion, at this moment, is that the success of a symphonic transcription is based on several choices. First you will need to choose a key for the transcription that fits the ensemble in a natural way. When this key is chosen with knowledge about the limitations of the ensemble the transcription has to be instrumented in a high level of craftsmanship.
Johan Smeulders finished his first Bachelor degree in 2011 as a euphonium player at the Fontys Conservatoire in Tilburg. He finished his Bachelor degree of Conducting arts studying at the Royal Conservatoire in The Hague in 2015. He is the principal conductor of two fanfare bands and two concert bands in the south of the Netherlands. He also works as an arranger and as a professional euphonium player.
Babylon Quartet: Kellen McDaniel, Danielle Daoukayeva, William McCleish, Leonid
Main Subject: Chamber Music
Research Supervisors: Renee Jonker, Liesbeth Ackermans
Title of Research:
Babylon Quartet: Ghosts, Mirrors, and The River: A case study in performance and compositional practices of modern electro acoustic music
What are some of the important challenges faced in creating and performing works which utilize electronics, and what kinds of performance practices and compositional approaches can be used to mitigate and overcome these challenges?
Summary of Results:
The use of electronics in music composition and performance continues to expand, both in commercially mainstream and artistically niche genres of music. This presents a growing set of demands on classically trained musicians who wish to perform music which uses electronics. This paper is mainly a primary source documentation of performance techniques, challenges and solutions presented by the members of Babylon Quartet in their preparation and performance of an original work for string quartet involving electronics. The piece was written by violist Kellen McDaniel and his brother Marshall McDaniel. It consists of first hand accounts of all four players as well as the two composers, detailing the process of first premiering the work, and then subsequently revising and adapting the work for future performances, as well as relevant technical explanation and documentation. The goal of this research is to provide insight and practical solutions on how some core challenges of electro-acoustic performance can be overcome from both compositional and performance perspectives.
Babylon Quartet is a string quartet based in The Hague. Playing together for the past three years, they have been honored as recipients of Het Kersjesfonds Strijkkwartetstipendium as well as winning first place De Grote Kammermusik Prijs - De Doelen. They consist of violinists Leonid Nikishin (Russia) and Danielle Daoukayeva (Netherlands), violist Kellen McDaniel (USA), and Cellist William McCleish (Canada). Kellen McDaniel and his brother Marshall McDaniel are a composing duo from Los Angeles, California. They have composed works for the concert hall and theater, as well as film and television.
Name: Wen Chin Fu
Main Subject: Entropy in Music Theatre
Research Supervisor: Paul Slangen and Paul Koek
Title of Research: The state of entropy in Muziektheater
Research Question: How do artists from different disciplines work together?
Summary of Results:
For the last 40 years, Music Theatre has been a unique field in performance art in Holland. It always full of surprise , inspiring ideas and fun in Muziektheater. How does artists from different disciplines work together? What is happening in the process of making art? What is the psychological and physical reaction of artists during the process of making? When I work with other artists, am I fully aware of my role in this collaboration? Am I satisfied with myself? Do we believe what we made is what we really want? Do we know our audiences? This are the question I have asked myself repeatedly last year. I was eager to find an answer to my questions. In the process I discovered the entropy theory. In this research, I'll try to analyze, explain , experiment and experience the idea of entropy in the process of making. Entropy happens when there is an energy trigger point(an action), it is not a result, it is a state of process.
Marcel Duchamp mentioned in his talk The Creative Act: “The creative act is not performed by artist alone; the spectator brings the work in contact with external world by deciphering and interpreting its inner qualifications and thus adds his contribution to the creative act.”
Wen Chin Fu graduated in 2006 from the Classical Music Department of Shih Chien University, Taipei, and continued her studies at the ArtScience interfaculty of The Hague, where she graduated in 2010 and currently studies in the second year master in T.I.M.E. Her performances explore the relationship between physical movement, sound and the environment. She has been developing various instruments. All the instruments focus on the relation between the material and physical movement. A key element of her practice is concentration, which opens the senses for perceiving things through new perspectives.
Resonance training is a technique which has the purpose to use our body in connection to our instrument. This can be developed in a progressive way with a number of exercises which are documented by Thomas Lange. In general lines we seek to find the center of gravity in our body and potentiate its possibilities. The result would be a general sensation of freedom and at the same time independence of our body on the search of our artistic expression while performing. Liberty and trust in our body as our given instrument rather than uptightness with it.