On circular algorithm and circular geometry

9.1.2 Complexity of the Circular Graph Drawing Problem

Intuitively, the problem of creating circular graph drawings while minimizing the number of edge crossings seems very hard. The general problem of placing nodes such that the number of edge crossings is minimum is the well-known NP-hard crossing number problem. Furthermore, the more restricted problem of finding a minimum crossing embedding such that all the nodes are placed onto the circumference of a circle and all edges are represented with straight lines is also NP-hard as proven in [MKNF87]. The authors show the NP-hardness by giving a polynomial time transformation from the NP-complete Modified Optimal Linear Arrangement problem.

Openness in circular algorithm


What is openness in circular algorithm?

For a new assemblage

On Randomness


A starting point of my recent artistic research theoretically and practically:

1. Notation: Turn ideas into digital objects (virtualization).
2. Theorizing methods and materials for implementing digital objects (virtual objects).
3. Morphology and visual symbolization (significance/Sinn, i.e. based on Braille, is similar to Siebel in linguistics) of objects using circular algorithms and flux structures
4. Ethics (hand-writing in topological transformation to digitalisation (cording)) and aesthetics of spatial installations (epistemological research of architectural spaces and objects)
5. Art play and communication (communication and creativity between visually disability and non-disability), on the topic of equality (Research question What is equality? deal with transversal aesthetics).

(Fact-objective-subjective) Observational,

Hand-drawing (Manual),

Objective Subjectivity,

Programming (Scanning),
Calculation by Software

Without AI, manual work

From the perspective of cultural research, I am a research member of the Nordic Aesthetic Society, so my methodology is to return to the original. Hence, Dogen and Zeami. Shinto is the word "Koto no ha (言の葉)" and what overlaps with Zeami is that it is very sensual (sensational) such as from the perspective in linguistics. That was Japanese.

The flexible structure (also named soft porous crystals: SPC) can be defined as porous solids that possess both a highly ordered network and structural transformability


Embody the circular algorithm. At the moment we have not yet decided how to construct it using assemblage. I have the choice, a circular algorithm to follow (openness) or to concentrate on the form (whole, coordination).


For a new assemblage

In this Idea draft Näher und Entfernung, I explored the composer Valerio Sannicandro's doctoral thesis. His work is rather in the context of Stockhausen, not in the context of Xenakis. He analyzes the sound (e.g. instrument) and shapes it (not “alienation/Verfremdung”), i.e. “imitation”. i.e. Alvin Lucier's work in his doctoral thesis.
However, it is called “transformation” in the context of German idealism. (the term in German idealism)
I need to do more research on the topic of “transformation” in the context of German idealism.
I improved his method and created a new artistic method
in the context of Xenakis.


- What does composer's work(s) tell us?


Theoretical exploring: on articulation

In this draft, I worked on equations for programming, not sharp an art object.– for the synthesis

Today's study of sculpture on materiality is the same as the study of architecture and music composition. 'Fact' is the most important in the creativity.


Reflection: What is a 'detail'?

What is 'geometry'?


What is a 'drawing'?

- for a starting point of


(Fact-subjective) Hand drawing (Manual),

(Fact-objective) Natural phenomenon (Intervention)


Objective Subjectivity,

Programming (Manual),
Calculation by Software

Without AI, manual work

0053 Näher und Entfernung

Der Entwurf verfügt über eine besondere Ästhetik und eine ungewöhnliche Kombination von Materialien. Es wird als sehr interessant gesehen, dass die Skulptur unterschiedliche haptische Qualitäten aufweist und in diesem Sinne explizit angefasst und ertastet werden kann. Der Verweis auf das Erlernen müssen von Inhalten durch den Einsatz von Blindenschrift wird ebenfalls als positiv erachtet.

This artistic research project Näher und Entfernung  in Untitled* is the draft for a public art competition.
Critical theory here is a consideration of future forms (materials and technology) and their industrialization from the perspective of image impairment. As a cultural behaviour, this art object can be touched. A question for integration as an open society in the near future. – a communication between seeing-in and touching-in

Before start to work with the AI, I explore without AI, manual for a drawing (concept, draft).